Northeastern Himalayas

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Plants found in Northeastern Himalayas

A total of 25 plants in the Brahma Database are found in Northeastern Himalayas.

Species nameCommon nameCommon hindi nameHabitat details
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiRain forest, disturbed forest, open grassland, fields, creek sides, in open areas often a sprawling shrub; also recorded from limestone; altitude 50-1050 m
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernThe plants usually prefer brackish and saline marshes, in mangrove forests. Sunderbans is thus a perfect habitat for them. However they cannot tolerate flooding (Naturia) They are occasionally found in freshwater swamps, marshes and around lakes. However, it is only the sporophyte that can grow in high soil salinity, the gametophyte cannot tolerate as much salt.(Li) Among the first large low-growing plants to grow on the landward side of the mangrove, the fern provides shade for other plants and trees to take root. But on cleared mangroves, it can form impenetrable thickets which prevents other plants from taking root. Thus it is often considered a weed. For animals, these thickets provide safety and shelter. Birds such as the Purple Heron (Ardea purpurea) make their nests in these thickets. (Naturia)
Alpinia allughasTaraTara (Bengali)This plant grows along banks of streams, canals and rivers. It is found in forests, marshy tracts, swamps and also in tea gardens
Azadirachta indicaNeemनीम NeemMainly a tropical and subtropical species, it grows mainly in low-lying areas and wooded areas in India and Sri Lanka. Neem is known to grow well under less water availability and thus is a hardy species. The species has been naturalized now in several other countries like Indonesia and Australia. The plant is found growing along road sides, near temples, wooded areas, forest edges, gardens, deciduous forests etc.
Azolla pinnataMosquito fern, Duckweed fern, Fairy moss, Water fernA. pinnata is a wetland, aquatic species. found freely floating on water, in inundated rice fields, canals and ponds. Azolla cannot survive winters with prolonged freezing, so is often grown as an ornamental plant at high latitudes where it cannot establish itself firmly enough to become a weed. It is not tolerant to salinity; normal plants can't survive in greater than 1-1.6‰, and even conditioned organisms die in over 5.5% salinity. Other Azolla species are also serious weeds in many parts of the world, entirely covering some bodies of water. The myth that no mosquito can penetrate the coating of fern to lay its eggs in the water gives the plant its common name "mosquito fern".
Catharanthus roseusTiny Periwinkle, Vincaसदाबहार SadabahaOf the eight species of Catharanthus, seven are endemic to Madagascar and the one - C. roseus - is also found in India. This unlikely coincidence is probably because India and Madagascar were joined in the Pangaea before the movement of continents. C. roseus grows best in warm climates and is hardy with respect to its nutritional and water requirements. Madagascar periwinkle is a tolerant plant that can become established in a variety of tropical and subtropical habitats. In Madagascar, the plant’s native home, it has been collected in open woods, shrublands, grasslands, and disturbed areas, along roadsides, and on beaches and limestone rocks. It is found from sea level to 900 m altitude, on a variety of substrates.
Cedrus deodaraDeodar CedarदेओदारThe `cedar' is commonly gregarious at altitudes from 2000‑3000 m.
Ceratopteris pteridoidesFloating antlerfernAquatic to semiaquatic; in swamps, bogs, canals, ponds, lakes, ditches, marshes; 0--25 m. In India, it is found in fish ponds, water reservoirs and in rice fields. It may be more widely distributed in India and the other specimens may have been mis-identified as C. thalictroides Considered native to the Old World (not clear whether India)
Cinnamomum tamalaIndian Bay Leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark, Tamala cassia, Malabar Leafतेजपत्ता tejpatta
Hiptage benghalensisHiptage, Helicopter flowerमाधवी लता Madhavi Lata, अतिमुक्त AtimuktaThe plant is naturalized and cultivated in some regions. It grows in damp places. Needs presence of other trees in vicinity.
Mangifera indicaMangoआम Am
Marsilea minutaDwarf waterclover, Small watercloverचौपतिरा ChaupatiraShallow pools, river edges, Canals, ditches, rice fields. Most abundant in temporarily flooded places where it may form large and dense colonies which can become locally dominant. TOLERATES CONSIDERABLE ORGANIC POLLUTION. Sporocarps develop as water recedes.
Mesua ferreaCobra saffron, Ceylon ironwood, Indian rose chestnutनाग चम्पा Nag champa, नागकेसर Nagkesar
Microsorum pteropusJava fernThe plant usually grows as a rheophyte on the edges of mountain streams, but some ecotypes can grow completely underwater. The species is native to Tropical Asia, whether India is not clear.
Murraya exoticaChinese box, Orange JasmineKamini कामिनीThe native range is China, India, Sri Lanka and other regions in South East Asia. It is a tropical species and has also been naturalized in many locations such as Puerto Rico. Some authors consider M. paniculata and M. exotica as separate species, but they have been identified in the Species 2000 list as synonyms. The plant is highly adapted to many environments and can grow from sea level to 1300m. Grows on soils derived from both sedimentary and igneous rocks, although it may prefer limestone areas. Plants are hardy and survive at temperatures upto -4C.
Nelumbo nuciferaWater Lily, Lotus, Sacred Lotus, East Indian Lotusकमल KamalRooted hydrophyte. The plant has firm roots in the mud and flowers out of the water surface. Hence it needs shallow water bodies to grow. It grows in permanent water bodies,small ponds and shallow areas of lakes and rivers, upto altitudes of 400m. The plant adds to the dissolved oxygen in water and thus is important for the health of the flora and fauna in the water bodies. It also provides solid substrate and shade for its cohabitants. The plant is also found abundantly in China and other East Asian countries, where also it is highly culturally integrated. It is possible that the locus of origin of Nelumbo nucifera is the sub-Himalayan region.
Ocimum tenuiflorumHoly Basil, Indian Basilतुलसी TulsiThis plant is found all across India in a wide range of habitats. In the Himalayas, it is found upto 1800m altitude. Tulsi generally prefers moist soils.
Phlogacanthus curviflorusWild NongmangkhaNA
Phyllanthus emblicaIndian Gooseberry, Amlaआमला AmlaThe tree is commonly found in deciduous forests in India, upto 4500ft in the hilly regions.
Rauvolfia serpentinaIndian snakeroot, Serpentine woodसर्पगंधा SarpagandhaForests, Evergreen and deciduous forests, slopes of ghats, open areas, undergrowth in semi-evergreen forests, cultivated fields and plains.
Terminalia chebulaChebulic Myrobalan, Myrobalanहर्रा Harra, हरड़ Harad
Zingiber capitatumWild Gingerजंगली अदरक Jangali adrak
Zingiber chrysanthumGolden flowered ginger
Zingiber officinaleGarden gingerअदरक AdrakGinger probably originated as part of the ground flora of tropical lowland forests, where many of its wild relatives can still be found. In cultivation it requires hot, humid, shady conditions and grows best in a fertile loam as it needs large quantities of nutrients.
Zingiber rubensBengal Ginger