Mimusops elengi

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Spanish Cherry tree in Calcutta
Species name: Mimusops elengi

The tree is used in rest of the world for its hard wood. In India, it is also used to make garlands from its fragrant flowers. It finds use in many Ayurvedic products. especially those for oral health. Lord Krishna is said to have played his flute under Bakul trees attracting young women. The tree is said to flower when sprinkled with nectar from the mouths of beautiful women. (Source: Wikipedia, Flowers of India)


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Ashwinip
Date on which this page was first created 2010/09/03
This page was last modified on: 14 November 2010 17:47:44
Name of the species Mimusops elengi
ID on Encyclopedia of Life
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Spanish cherry, Bullet wood
Common Hindi Names बकुल Bakul, मौलसरी Maulsari
Common Indian names Maulsari मौलसरी, बकुल Bakul (Hindi); Kirakuli किराकुली (Urdu);বোকুল লৈ Bokul lei (Manipuri);மகிழம்பூ Magizhamboo (Tamil);Ilanni (Malayalam);Bakul (Bengali);Bakuli (Marathi); Konkani: Omval (Konkani); Ranjal (Kannada); Barsoli (Gujarati) Flowers of India
Origins/Meanings of the common names

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

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{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Ericales
Family Sapotaceae
Genus Mimusops
Source of data Encylopedia of Life

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Acacia niloticaMagnoliopsidaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaMagnoliopsidaAshokaअशोक Ashok
Adansonia digitataMagnoliopsidaBaobabGorakh imli गोरख इमली
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliopsidaMagnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty.Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Madhuca longifoliaEricalesMahuaमहुआ Mahua
Mimusops elengiEricalesSpanish cherry, Bullet woodबकुल Bakul, मौलसरी Maulsari
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Madhuca longifoliaSapotaceaeMahuaमहुआ Mahua
Mimusops elengiSapotaceaeSpanish cherry, Bullet woodबकुल Bakul, मौलसरी Maulsari
FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
SapotaceaeTrees or shrubs , usually producing latex. Leaves spirally arranged or alternate and distichous, rarely ± opposite, sometimes crowded at apex of branchlets ; stipules early deciduous or absent; leaf blade papery or leathery, margin entire. Flowers bisexual or unisexual , usually in sessile axillary clusters , rarely solitary; cluster pedunculate or in raceme-like inflorescence, bracteolate . Calyx a single whorl of usually 4--6 sepals, or 2 whorls each with 2--4 sepals. Corolla lobes as many to 2 X as many as sepals, usually entire, rarely with 2 lacerate or lobular appendages . Stamens inserted at corolla base or at throat of corolla tube , as many as and opposite corolla lobes to many and in 2 or 3 whorls; staminodes when present alternate with stamens, scaly to petal-like. Ovary superior, 4- or 5-locular, placentation axillary; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous . Style 1, often apically lobed . Fruit a berry or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seed coat brown (pale yellow in Pouteria annamensis), hard, shiny, rich in tannin; endosperm usually oily; seed scar lateral and linear to oblong or basal and round.
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Mimusops elengiMimusopsSpanish cherry, Bullet woodबकुल Bakul, मौलसरी Maulsari

Based on classification

FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
SapotaceaeTrees or shrubs , usually producing latex. Leaves spirally arranged or alternate and distichous, rarely ± opposite, sometimes crowded at apex of branchlets ; stipules early deciduous or absent; leaf blade papery or leathery, margin entire. Flowers bisexual or unisexual , usually in sessile axillary clusters , rarely solitary; cluster pedunculate or in raceme-like inflorescence, bracteolate . Calyx a single whorl of usually 4--6 sepals, or 2 whorls each with 2--4 sepals. Corolla lobes as many to 2 X as many as sepals, usually entire, rarely with 2 lacerate or lobular appendages . Stamens inserted at corolla base or at throat of corolla tube , as many as and opposite corolla lobes to many and in 2 or 3 whorls; staminodes when present alternate with stamens, scaly to petal-like. Ovary superior, 4- or 5-locular, placentation axillary; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous . Style 1, often apically lobed . Fruit a berry or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seed coat brown (pale yellow in Pouteria annamensis), hard, shiny, rich in tannin; endosperm usually oily; seed scar lateral and linear to oblong or basal and round.

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

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General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant A large evergreen tree, stem cylindrical, bark dark grey, smooth, not deeply furrowed. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate, 3.5-4-5 x 7-10.5 cm, base cuneate, apex acuminate, entire or slightly wavy, glabrous, petiolate, petiole 2-3.5 cm long. Flowers axillary solitary or fascicled, creamish white, fragrant, c. 15 mm in diameter, pedicel c. 2 cm long, hairy. Calyx 6-lobed, lobes free, lanceolate, tomentose. Corolla tube very short, lobes 24 in 2 series. Stamens 8, anthers subsessile, staminodes hairy. Ovary pubescent. Fruit ovoid, 2.5-4 cm long, orange, pubescent when young, with persistent calyx. (EoL)

Bullet wood is an evergreen tree reaching a height of about 16 m. It flowers in April, and fruiting occurs in June. It is a medium-sized large tree growing on tropical forests in South Asia, Southeast Asia & Northern Australia. Leaves are glossy, dark green, oval shaped, 5–14 cm long and 2.5–6 cm wide. Flowers are cream, hairy and scented. Bark is thick and appears dark brownish black or grayish black in colour. It may reach up to a height of 30–60 ft with about 1 m in circumference. (Wikipedia)"A large evergreen tree, stem cylindrical, bark dark grey, smooth, not deeply furrowed. Leaves alternate, broadly ovate, 3.5-4-5 x 7-10.5 cm, base cuneate, apex acuminate, entire or slightly wavy, glabrous, petiolate, petiole 2-3.5 cm long. Flowers axillary solitary or fascicled, creamish white, fragrant, c. 15 mm in diameter, pedicel c. 2 cm long, hairy. Calyx 6-lobed, lobes free, lanceolate, tomentose. Corolla tube very short, lobes 24 in 2 series. Stamens 8, anthers subsessile, staminodes hairy. Ovary pubescent. Fruit ovoid, 2.5-4 cm long, orange, pubescent when young, with persistent calyx. (EoL)

Bullet wood is an evergreen tree reaching a height of about 16 m. It flowers in April, and fruiting occurs in June. It is a medium-sized large tree growing on tropical forests in South Asia, Southeast Asia & Northern Australia. Leaves are glossy, dark green, oval shaped, 5–14 cm long and 2.5–6 cm wide. Flowers are cream, hairy and scented. Bark is thick and appears dark brownish black or grayish black in colour. It may reach up to a height of 30–60 ft with about 1 m in circumference. (Wikipedia)" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Encyclopedia of Life through eFloras, Wikipedia
Seed dispersal mechanism Entomophily (By insects), Zoophily (By vertebrates)
Bloom type Perennial
Life cycle of the plant Tree flowers in April, fruiting occurs in June Wikipedia

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Woody (Tree/Shrub)
Plant height More than 10 feet
Flower color White
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves Alternate
Leaf shape Ovate EoL
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile? Petiolated EoL
Is the leaf simple or compound? Simple

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status Not Evaluated EoL
Indian States in which the species has been documented Andhra Pradesh,Andaman and Nicobar Islands,Bihar,Dadra and Nagar Haveli,Goa,Gujarat,Himachal Pradesh,Karnataka,Kerala,Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra,Rajasthan,Tamil Nadu,Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal Sasya Sahyadri
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited Northwestern Himalayas, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, Central Deccan Plateau, East Coast, West Coast, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Outlying Islands
Details about the habitat Mimusops elengi is found often near the coast, but is also found inland, upto 600m altitude. It doesnt require a lot of water and can grow where here is slightly seasonal rainfall. Usually found in dry habitats, but requires fertile soil to mature. It can stand waterlogging for up to 2 months. It is tolerant of light frost. Protabase
Is this species native to India? Yes JSTOR Plant Science
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernFernNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitकटहलWoody (Tree/Shrub)
Azadirachta indicaNeemनीम NeemWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Northwestern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Boerhavia diffusaRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, SathaHerb
… further results

If no maps are displayed below, it means the required data is absent. Click on "Edit with form" button on top of the page to add this information.
{{#generateMap:Andhra Pradesh,Andaman and Nicobar Islands,Bihar,Dadra and Nagar Haveli,Goa,Gujarat,Himachal Pradesh,Karnataka,Kerala,Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra,Rajasthan,Tamil Nadu,Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal|Mimusopselengi_brahma.svg|align=center}}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Mimusops elengiSpanish cherry, Bullet woodबकुल Bakul, मौलसरी MaulsariSapotaceaeInfectious diseases
Pains and Inflammation
Common ailments
Organ-specific disorders
The bark, flowers, fruits and seeds are astringent, cooling, anthelmintic, tonic, and febrifuge. It is mainly used in dental ailments like bleeding gums, pyorrhea, dental caries and loose teeth.

Extract of flowers used against heart diseases, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and act as antiduretic in polyuria and antitoxin. The snuff made from the dried and powdered flowers used in a disease called Ahwa in which strong fever, headache and pain in the neck, shoulders and other parts of the body occurs.

Ripened fruits facilitates in burning urination. The ripe fruit pounded and mixed with water is given to promote delivery in childbirth. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and useful as a snuff to relieve cephalalgia. Decoration of bark is used to wash the wounds. (Wikipedia)

For curing dental disorders, the tender stems or the powdered skin of the bark are used for cleansing the teeth . One combination of powders of its bark skin, roots of Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum), Saireyaka (Barleria prionitis) leaves and skin of an almond fruit is burnt into ash and is used to cleanse the teeth and strengthen them. For treating swollen and bleeding gums, the extract of its bark skin and that of Khadira (Acacia catechu) are effective when gargled. The unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and helps to fix loose teeth.

The extract also has action on the urinogenital tract - as a diuretic and preventing premature ejaculation.(Herbalremedies)
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Infectious diseases, Pains and Inflammation, Common ailments, Organ-specific disorders
Specific ailments for which the species is used Diuretic, Dental disorders, Aphrodisiac, skin complaints and ulcers, Cardiac diseases, Astringent, Fever, Uterine disorders, hypertension, Antihelmintic Koti2010
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Unani, Folk Medicine Koti2010
Details of Medicinal use The bark, flowers, fruits and seeds are astringent, cooling, anthelmintic, tonic, and febrifuge. It is mainly used in dental ailments like bleeding gums, pyorrhea, dental caries and loose teeth.

Extract of flowers used against heart diseases, leucorrhoea, menorrhagia and act as antiduretic in polyuria and antitoxin. The snuff made from the dried and powdered flowers used in a disease called Ahwa in which strong fever, headache and pain in the neck, shoulders and other parts of the body occurs.

Ripened fruits facilitates in burning urination. The ripe fruit pounded and mixed with water is given to promote delivery in childbirth. Powder of dried flowers is a brain tonic and useful as a snuff to relieve cephalalgia. Decoration of bark is used to wash the wounds. (Wikipedia)

For curing dental disorders, the tender stems or the powdered skin of the bark are used for cleansing the teeth . One combination of powders of its bark skin, roots of Kantakari (Solanum xanthocarpum), Saireyaka (Barleria prionitis) leaves and skin of an almond fruit is burnt into ash and is used to cleanse the teeth and strengthen them. For treating swollen and bleeding gums, the extract of its bark skin and that of Khadira (Acacia catechu) are effective when gargled. The unripe fruit is used as a masticatory and helps to fix loose teeth.

The extract also has action on the urinogenital tract - as a diuretic and preventing premature ejaculation.(Herbalremedies)

Wikipedia (unreferenced), Herbalremedies (untrusted)
Parts of the plant used for treatment Stem, Bark, Flower, Fruit, Seeds Koti2010, Wikipedia
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known. Alkaloids, tannin, saponins, taraxerone, taraxerol, ursolic acid, betulinic acid, α-spinosterol, β-sitosterol, querrcitol, lupeol, isoretronecyl tigalate, triterpenoid saponins, steroidal saponin, β-sitosterol Koti2010
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known? Yes
Details of molecular basis of action Alcohol extract of stem bark has potent diuretic activity in rats comparable to diuretic drug Furosemide. The drug increases Na+/K+ transporter activity and may be acting like a loop diuretic. Koti2010
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Fruit
Details of use in food preparations Fruit is edible
Does this species have any religious significance? Yes User-reported
Religions which mention/give significance to this species Hinduism
Religious occasions Worship of Lord Krishna, Janmashtami Gauravm
Details of religious use It is said that Lord Krishna liked Bakul flowers very much. He used to play his flute underneath a Bakul tree in Vrindavan and the milkmaids used to get attracted towards the sound of the flute. Even today, Bakul flowers are offered during the worship of Lord Krishna.

The ancient poet Kalidasa mentioned the Bakul tree in his creation Meghdoot. The plant is also listed in Charaka Samhita and Shushruta Samhita as having medicinal properties.

Flowers of India, Gauravm

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes Wikipedia
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Medicinal use, Wood
Plant parts of commercial value Entire plant, Stem
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use The M. elengi plant has strong wood which is used for purposes such as building bridges, home construction,shipbuilding,flooring,doors, poles, foundation sills, railway sleepers, paving blocks, mine timber, furniture and cabinet work, vehicle bodies and wheels, turnery, tool handles, walking sticks, weaving shuttles, toys, sporting goods and musical instruments.

Tree is planted as an ornamental shade. It can provide environmental benefits because of its large size when mature.

Protabase
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant Summer
Method of propagation Seeds, Vegetative propagation
Water requirement of this plant Average
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Protabase
Other considerations while cultivating this plant Seeds can be stored for 9 months and need after-ripening before sowing. Seeds germinate in 17-82 days. Seedlings can be planted out when 20-30cm tall. Protabase


Pubmed Word cloud

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Mimusops elengi }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species Very little sequence information available on NCBI (Sep 2010) NCBI Taxonomy
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

Click here to go to Google Images

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Bakul fruit
Bakul flowers in Hyderabad

References

Koti2010 (Journal) : Koti Basavaraj et al (2010),Diuretic activity of extracts of Mimusops elengi Linn. bark, Int J Green Pharm:4(90):2. doi={{{doi}}}


Flowers of India (Web): Flowers of India entry, Accessdate=2010-09-03


Encyclopedia of Life (Web): Encyclopedia of Life entry on Bakul, Accessdate=2010-09-03


Wikipedia (Web): Wikipedia entry on Mimusops elengi, Accessdate=2010-09-03


JSTOR Plant Science (Web): Entry for Mimusops elengi Linn. [family SAPOTACEAE], Accessdate=2010-09-04


Protabase.org (Web): Mimusops elengi L., Accessdate=2010-09-04