Allium sativum

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Bulbils of Garlic
Species name: Allium sativum

Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. Garlic has been used throughout history for both culinary and medicinal purposes. The garlic plant's bulb is the most commonly used part of the plant.


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/12/05
This page was last modified on: 14 December 2010 18:18:59
Name of the species Allium sativum
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 1084926
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Cultivated Garlic
Common Hindi Names लेह्सन Lehsan
Common Indian names लेह्सन Lehsan (Hindi); लसूण Lasun (Marathi); Lehsan (Gujarati); Naharu (Assamese); Rasun (Bengali) EoL
Origins/Meanings of the common names The ancestry of cultivated garlic is not definitely established: according to Zohary and Hopf "A difficulty in the identification of its wild progenitor is the sterility of the cultivars", though it is thought be descendent from the species Allium longicuspis, which grows wild in central and southwestern Asia. Allium sativum grow in the wild in areas where it has become naturalised. The "wild garlic", "crow garlic", and "field garlic" of Britain are members of the species Allium ursinum, Allium vineale, and Allium oleraceum, respectively. In North America, Allium vineale (known as "wild garlic" or "crow garlic") and Allium canadense, known as "meadow garlic" or "wild garlic" and "wild onion", are common weeds in fields. One of the best-known "garlics", the so-called elephant garlic, is actually a wild leek (Allium ampeloprasum), and not a true garlic. Single clove garlic (also called Pearl garlic or Solo garlic) also exists, originating in the Yunnan province of China. Wikipedia

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

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{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:1084926}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Order Asparagales
Family Amaryllidaceae
Genus Allium
Source of data Encyclopedia of Life

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraLiliopsidaAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Zingiber rubensLiliopsidaBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumLiliopsidaCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
LiliopsidaLiliopsida is considered the scientific name for monocots, but monocots may be called differently based on different taxonomic classification systems. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty. There are ~50000-60000 species of monocots, with the largest family being Orchidaceae (orchids) consisting of ~20000 species. The true grasses (Poaceae) are the most economically important family, with 70% of the crops being cultivated belonging to this family.The following features distinguish monocots from dicots - 1) Three flower parts in each flower (vs 4-5 in dicots) 2) One pore in pollen (vs 3) 3) One cotyledon (vs 2) 4) Vascular bundles in stem scattered (vs concentric circles) 5) Adventitious roots (vs radicle-origin) 6) Parallel venation (vs reticulate) These broad distinguishing features indeed have some exceptions
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAsparagalesAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Allium sativumAsparagalesCultivated Garlicलेह्सन Lehsan
Urginea indicaAsparagalesindian squilljangli-piyaz
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Allium sativumAmaryllidaceaeCultivated Garlicलेह्सन Lehsan
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Allium sativumAlliumCultivated Garlicलेह्सन Lehsan

Based on classification

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

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{{#EoLOnlyDescription:1084926}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant
Seed dispersal mechanism
Bloom type
Life cycle of the plant

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant
Plant height
Flower color
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves
Leaf shape
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile?
Is the leaf simple or compound?

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status
Indian States in which the species has been documented
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited
Details about the habitat
Is this species native to India? Yes
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Abelmoschus moschatusOkra, Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okraमुश्कदाना Mushkdana, कस्तूरीदाना Kasturi-dana, जंगली भिंडी Jangli bhindi
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernFernNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Allium sativumCultivated Garlicलेह्सन Lehsan
Alpinia aquaticaHerb
… further results

If no maps are displayed below, it means the required data is absent. Click on "Edit with form" button on top of the page to add this information.

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Allium sativumCultivated Garlicलेह्सन LehsanAmaryllidaceaeInfectious diseases
Pains and Inflammation
Common ailments
Systemic disorders
Cancer
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Infectious diseases, Pains and Inflammation, Common ailments, Systemic disorders, Cancer
Specific ailments for which the species is used
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Unani, Folk Medicine, Modern Medicine
Details of Medicinal use
Parts of the plant used for treatment
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Rhizomes, Fruit
Details of use in food preparations
Does this species have any religious significance? Yes User-reported
Religions which mention/give significance to this species Hinduism
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Medicinal use, Cosmetic use
Plant parts of commercial value Fruit
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant


Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Allium sativum }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

References

EoL (Web): Encyclopedia of Life entry, Accessdate=2010-12-05


Wikipedi (Web): Wikipedia entry, Accessdate=2010-12-05


{{{refkeyword}}} (Web): Allium sativum medicial value, Accessdate=2010-Dec-14

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