From Biodiversity of India
Pages using the property "Taxon details"
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|Acanthaceae +||The family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is one of the most successful Angiosperm dicot taxon. It contains almost 250 genera and 2500-4000 species. These species are mostly distributed in the tropics as herbs, shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. The representatives of the family can be found in nearly every habitat, including dense or open forests, in scrublands, on wet fields and valleys, at the sea coast and in marine areas, and in swamps and as an element of mangrove woods. +|
|Bovidae +||Almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family ''Bovidae'' are called bovids. The family is widespread, being native to Asia, Africa, Europe and North America, and diverse: members include bison, African buffalo, water buffalo, antelopes, gazelles, sheep, goats, muskoxen, and domestic cattle. The largest number of modern bovids is found in Africa The bovid family is known through fossils from the early Miocene, around 20 million years ago. The earliest bovids, such as Eotragus, were small animals, somewhat similar to modern gazelles, and probably lived in woodland environments. The bovids rapidly diversified, and by the late Miocene had moved onto grassland habitats. +|
|Carnivora +||The diverse order Carnivora (pronounced /kɑrˈnɪvərə/ or sometimes /ˌkɑrnɪˈvɔərə/; from Latin carō (stem ''carn''-) "flesh", + ''vorāre'' "to devour") includes over 13 distinct families and over 260 species of placental mammals. Its members are formally referred to as carnivorans, while the word "carnivore" (often popularly applied to members of this group) can refer to any meat-eating animal. Carnivorans are the most diverse in size of any mammalian order, ranging from the least weasel (''Mustela nivalis''), at as little as 25 grams and 11 centimetres, to the polar bear (''Ursus maritimus''), which can weigh up to 1,000 kilograms, to the southern elephant seal (''Mirounga leonina''), whose adult males weigh up to 5,000 kilograms and measure up to 6.9 metres in length. Carnivorans apparently evolved in North America out of members of the family Miacidae (miacids) about 42 million years ago in the Eocene era. They soon split into cat-like and dog-like forms (Feliformia (cat-like) and Caniformia (dog-like)). +|
|Chordata +||The phylum ''Chordata'' consists of three subphyla: ''Urochordata'', represented by tunicates; ''Cephalochordata'', represented by lancelets; and ''Craniata'', which includes Vertebrata. Chordates are monophyletic, meaning that ''Chordata'' contains all and only the descendants of a single common ancestor which is itself a chordate, and that craniates' nearest relatives are cephalochordates. The Chordates arose from a more general superphylum '''Deuterostomia''', which consists of Chordata, Hemichordata,Echinodermata and Xenoturbellida. The Deuterostomes split from Protostomes ~550 mya in the Cambrian era. It is supposed that Chordates arose in the Mid-Cambrian period, however there is controversy regarding that. The controversy arises mainly due to the fact that fossils of early chordates are very rare. +|
|Fabaceae +||''Fabaceae'' is the third largest family of flowering plants, behind ''Orchidaceae'' and ''Asteraceae'', with 730 genera and over 19,400 species. Found worldwide, this family contains many agronomically important plants such as Soybean, Phaseolus (beans), Green peas, Chickpeas, Alfalfa, Peanut,Carob), and ''Glycyrrhiza glabra'' (licorice). It has been suggested, based on fossil and phylogenetic evidence, that legumes originally evolved in arid and/or semi-arid regions along the Tethys seaway during the early Tertiary (Schrire2005). However, others contend that Africa (or even the Americas) cannot yet be ruled out as the origin of the family (Pan2010). +|
|Lamiales +||Species in this order probably arose ~70-100 million years ago based on various estimates. Lamiales contain ~12% of eudicot diversity. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary. +|
|Liliopsida +||''Liliopsida'' is considered the scientific name for monocots, but monocots may be called differently based on different taxonomic classification systems. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty. There are ~50000-60000 species of monocots, with the largest family being ''Orchidaceae'' (orchids) consisting of ~20000 species. The true grasses (''Poaceae'') are the most economically important family, with 70% of the crops being cultivated belonging to this family. +|
|Magnoliophyta +||Also called ''Angiospermae''. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago. +|
|Magnoliopsida +||Magnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty. +|
|Mammalia +||Depending on classification scheme, there are approximately 5,500 species (5,490, according to the IUCN Red List) of mammals, distributed in about 1,200 genera, 153 families, 29 orders The early synapsid mammalian ancestors, a group which included pelycosaurs such as Dimetrodon, diverged from the amniote line that would lead to reptiles at the end of the Carboniferous period. Although they were preceded by many diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids (sometimes misleadingly referred to as mammal-like reptiles), the first true mammals appeared 220 million years ago in the Triassic period. +|
|Musaceae +||The ''Musaceae'' family is native to the tropics of Africa and Asia. As currently circumscribed the family includes either two or three genera (depending upon acceptance of the genus ''Musella'', see below). All of the genera and species are native to the Old World. The largest and most economically important genus in the family is ''Musa'', famous for the banana and plantain. There is ambiguity between some members of ''Musa'' and ''Ensete'' (CoL 2010 checklist). +|
|Primates +||The Primates are an ancient and diverse eutherian group, currently with around 233 living species placed in 13 families. Most dwell in tropical forests. The smallest living primate is the pygmy marmoset, which weighs around 70 g; the largest is the gorilla, weighing up to around 175 kg. According to fossil evidence, the primitive ancestors of primates may have existed in the late Cretaceous period around 65 million years ago, and the oldest known primate is the Late Paleocene Plesiadapis, c. 55–58 million years ago. Molecular clock studies suggest that the primate branch may be even older, originating in the mid-Cretaceous period around 85 mya. +|
|Zingiberaceae +||''Zingiberaceae'' split off from the genus ''Costaceae'' ~79 or ~100 million years ago, based on two estimates (Kress06,Janssen04). The family consists of over 93 genera and over 2000 different species, with the center of diversity in South-East Asia. +|