Mangifera indica

From Biodiversity of India
Jump to: navigation, search


Navigation
Read community contributed articles on biodiversity & environment || Cultural practices & mythological stories related to Indian biodiversity || Official documents related to environment || NGOs, Blogs and Websites || Environment-related video collection || Plants of India || Mammals of India || Facebook || Twitter

Share this page: Mangifera indica

Banganpalli Mango variety from Karnataka
Species name: Mangifera indica

Mangifera indica or Mango is a very popular fruit in India and all parts of the world. It is famous for its bright yellow color and exquisite taste. The most popular variety of Indian mango is the "Alphonso".It is a crop of great economic importance to India and is cultivated in many parts of the country.


Click here to see all Semantic Properties associated with this page


Please note that the above slideshow is automatically created by searching Flickr and does not contain manually curated images. Hence, it is likely that some images may not be exactly of Mangifera indica.


Click on the tabs below to know more...

[edit]

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Supriyak, Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/05/29
This page was last modified on: 21 November 2010 00:33:40
Name of the species Mangifera indica
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 582270
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Mango
Common Hindi Names आम Am
Common Indian names आम Am (Hindi); Heinou (Manipuri); மா Ma (Tamil); Mamidi (Telugu); Mangga (Malayalam); Mavina mara (Kannada); Amba अंबा (Marathi); Ambo आंबॉ (Konkani) Flowers of India
Origins/Meanings of the common names The word Mango is supposedly derived from the Malayalam word Mangga, through the Portuguese word Manga. Mango has been cultivated for several centuries in South-East Asia.

The species appears to have been domesticated about 4,000 years ago. The species was first moved around 400-500 BC from northeastern India to east Asia; next, in the 15th century to the Philippines; and then, in the 16th century to Africa and Brazil by the Portuguese.The species was described for science by Linnaeus in 1753.

It is the National fruit of both Pakistan and India respectively, it finds mention in the songs of 4th century AD Sanskrit poet, Kalidasa, prior to it is believed to have been tasted by Alexander (3rd century BC) and Chinese pilgrim, Hieun Tsang (7th century CE). Later in 16th century Mughal Emperor, Akbar planted 100,000 mango trees in Darbhanga, Bihar at a place now known as Lakhi Bagh

Wikipedia

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:582270}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Angiospermae (Unranked)
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Sapindales
Family Anacardiaceae
Genus Mangifera
Source of data '

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Mangifera indicaMangoआम Am
Catharanthus pusillusTiny Periwinkle, Tiny Vincaसान्ग्खी Sangkhi
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Acacia niloticaMagnoliopsidaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaMagnoliopsidaAshokaअशोक Ashok
Adansonia digitataMagnoliopsidaBaobabGorakh imli गोरख इमली
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliopsidaMagnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty.Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aegle marmelosSapindalesBel, Beli fruit, Bengal quince, Stone apple, Wood appleबेल Bel
Anacardium occidentaleSapindalesCashewकाजू Kaju
Murraya exoticaSapindalesChinese box, Orange JasmineKamini कामिनी
… further results
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Anacardium occidentaleAnacardiaceaeCashewकाजू Kaju
Mangifera indicaAnacardiaceaeMangoआम Am
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Mangifera indicaMangiferaMangoआम Am

Based on classification

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyDescription:582270}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant Mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) grow 35–40 m (115–130 ft) tall, with a crown radius of 10 m (33 ft). The mango tree is long-lived; some specimens still fruit after 300 years. Agroforestry.net
Seed dispersal mechanism
Bloom type Perennial USDA
Life cycle of the plant

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Woody (Tree/Shrub)
Plant height More than 10 feet
Flower color White EoL.org
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves Alternate
Leaf shape Oblanceolate
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile?
Is the leaf simple or compound?

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status Data Deficient EoL
Indian States in which the species has been documented Assam,Andhra Pradesh,Arunachal Pradesh,Bihar,Chhatisgarh,Delhi,Goa,Gujarat,Himachal Pradesh,Jharkhand,Karnataka,Kerala,Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra,Manipur,Meghalaya,Mizoram,Orissa,Punjab,Rajasthan,Sikkim,Tamil Nadu,Tripura,Uttarakhand,Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal Plant Database of India, Gauravm
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited Northeastern Himalayas, Northwestern Himalayas, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, Central Deccan Plateau, East Coast, West Coast, Indo-Gangetic Plain, Outlying Islands Based on data from Plant Database
Details about the habitat
Is this species native to India? Yes HorticultureWorld,based on Popenoe 1920
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions? No
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats? No
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats? No

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitकटहलWoody (Tree/Shrub)
Boerhavia diffusaRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, SathaHerb
Jasminum officinaleCommon Jasmine, Poet's Jasmine, Spanish Jasmineचमेली ChameliWoody (Tree/Shrub)Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Mangifera indicaMangoआम AmWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Northwestern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Marsilea brachycarpaWatercloverFern
… further results

If no maps are displayed below, it means the required data is absent. Click on "Edit with form" button on top of the page to add this information.
{{#generateMap:Assam,Andhra Pradesh,Arunachal Pradesh,Bihar,Chhatisgarh,Delhi,Goa,Gujarat,Himachal Pradesh,Jharkhand,Karnataka,Kerala,Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra,Manipur,Meghalaya,Mizoram,Orissa,Punjab,Rajasthan,Sikkim,Tamil Nadu,Tripura,Uttarakhand,Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal|Mangifera_indica_brahma.svg|align=center}}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Mangifera indicaMangoआम AmAnacardiaceaeInfectious diseases
Nutritional deficiencies
Systemic disorders
Organ-specific disorders
The twigs and leaves, used to clean the teeth, are said to be beneficial to the gums, while the bark is said to be useful for toothaches. The astringent stomachic bark is also used for internal hemorrhages, bronchitis, and catarrh.

The resin is used for cracked feet, ringworm, and other fungi, syphilis, and to induce sweating. Smoke from the burning leaves is believed to cure various throat disorders, from asthma to hiccups.

Dried mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic urethritis resulting from gonorrhea. Green fruits are considered anticholeric (baked and mixed with sugar and taken internally and also rubbed over the body), antidysmenorrheic, antiscorbutic, astringent, and diaphoretic. Roasted green fruits are dissolved in sugar water and taken internally to prevent sunstroke. Ripe fruits are considered diuretic, laxative, and unguent. A gruel made of the seeds is taken internally for bleeding piles.

The wood is favored for making shovels. The bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria in India. The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies, and is believed helpful in cases of syphilis. Mango kernel decoction and powder (not tannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. The fat is administered in cases of stomatitis. Extracts of unripe fruits and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. In some of the islands of the Caribbean, the leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for diarrhea, fever, chest complaints, diabetes, hypertension and other ills.

A combined decoction of mango and other leaves is taken after childbirth.
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiencies, Systemic disorders, Organ-specific disorders
Specific ailments for which the species is used Diarrhea, Dysentery, Urethritis, Rheumatism, Diphtheria, Scabies, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhoids, Fever, Chest pains, Diabetes, Hypertension, Toothaches EoL
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Folk Medicine EoL
Details of Medicinal use The twigs and leaves, used to clean the teeth, are said to be beneficial to the gums, while the bark is said to be useful for toothaches. The astringent stomachic bark is also used for internal hemorrhages, bronchitis, and catarrh.

The resin is used for cracked feet, ringworm, and other fungi, syphilis, and to induce sweating. Smoke from the burning leaves is believed to cure various throat disorders, from asthma to hiccups.

Dried mango flowers, containing 15% tannin, serve as astringents in cases of diarrhea, chronic dysentery, catarrh of the bladder and chronic urethritis resulting from gonorrhea. Green fruits are considered anticholeric (baked and mixed with sugar and taken internally and also rubbed over the body), antidysmenorrheic, antiscorbutic, astringent, and diaphoretic. Roasted green fruits are dissolved in sugar water and taken internally to prevent sunstroke. Ripe fruits are considered diuretic, laxative, and unguent. A gruel made of the seeds is taken internally for bleeding piles.

The wood is favored for making shovels. The bark contains mangiferine and is astringent and employed against rheumatism and diphtheria in India. The resinous gum from the trunk is applied on cracks in the skin of the feet and on scabies, and is believed helpful in cases of syphilis. Mango kernel decoction and powder (not tannin-free) are used as vermifuges and as astringents in diarrhea, hemorrhages and bleeding hemorrhoids. The fat is administered in cases of stomatitis. Extracts of unripe fruits and of bark, stems and leaves have shown antibiotic activity. In some of the islands of the Caribbean, the leaf decoction is taken as a remedy for diarrhea, fever, chest complaints, diabetes, hypertension and other ills.

A combined decoction of mango and other leaves is taken after childbirth.

EoL
Parts of the plant used for treatment Stem, Bark, Leaves, Flower, Other EoL
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known? Yes
Details of molecular basis of action Mangiferin, 1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone-C2-beta-D-glucoside, is a xanthone derivative which has been proposed to have antiviral, antiproliferative and antioxidant properties. It has gastroprotective and anti-diabetic activities too. Yoshimi2001, Google search
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Leaves, Flower, Fruit
Details of use in food preparations
Does this species have any religious significance? Yes User-reported
Religions which mention/give significance to this species Hinduism
Religious occasions Hindu Puja, Diwali Plantcultures
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes Gauravm
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Medicinal use, Ornamental use, Religious use Gauravm
Plant parts of commercial value Leaves, Fruit Gauravm
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use Mango is used in several cooking preparations. Fruit pulp is used for making chutneys, pickles, sweets and juices. Mango leaves are used for making garlands for religious occasions in Hinduism. Gauravm
States where this plant is cultivated commercially Goa, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh Gauravm
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation Seeds
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant Major pests are mango fly, mango shoot caterpillar, mites, scales and thrips. Mango trees are also affected by mango decline, a problem associated with micronutrient deficiency. Diseases include: anthracnose, which affects fruits, inflorescences and foliage; powdery mildew on inflorescences; and mango scab . Internal breakdown of the fruit is an important problem, the cause of which has not yet been determined. Alga spot attacks flowers, young fruit, twigs and leaves. EoL - Trends and Threat
Loading map...

Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

The page may take some time to load since LigerCat is searching the entire PubMed database and sending us the results in real time.

  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Mangifera indica }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species On NCBI, mostly ribosomal ITS2 sequences and microsatellite marker sequences are available. Research has also focused on medicinal properties of Mangiferin, a xanthoid derivative obtained from Mango leaves. NCBI Site search
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

Click here to go to Google Images

Anwar Ratole, a mango variety from Punjab Pakistan
Mangifera indica picture taken in Gambia

References

Yoshimi2001 (Journal) : Yoshimi et al (2001),The inhibitory effects of mangiferin, a naturally occurring glucosylxanthone, in bowel carcinogenesis of male F344 rats., Cancer Lett.:163(2):163. doi={{{doi}}}


FlowersofIndia (Web): Flowers of India, Accessdate=2010-05-29


HorticultureWorld,based on Popenoe 1920 (Web): Mango entry on Horticulture World, Accessdate=2010-07-26


Agroforestry (Web): Agroforestry Entry on Mangifera indica, Accessdate=2010-06-11


EoL (Web): Mangifera indica on Encyclopedia of Life, Accessdate=2010-06-11


Mangifera.org (Web): Mangifera entry, Accessdate=2010-06-11


USDA (Web): [{{{url}}} USDA entry on Mangifera indica], Accessdate=2010-06-11


Plant Database of India (Web): Entry on Mangifera indica, Accessdate=2010-07-26