Property:Taxon morphology details

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Acanthaceae +Plants in this family have simple, opposite, decussate leaves with entire (or sometimes toothed, lobed, or spiny) margins, and without stipules. The leaves may contain cystoliths, calcium carbonate concretions, seen as streaks on the surface. The flowers are perfect, zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic, and arranged in an inflorescence that is either a spike, raceme, or cyme. Typically there is a colorful bract subtending each flower; in some species the bract is large and showy. The calyx is usually 4-5 lobed; the corolla tubular, 2-lipped or 5-lobed; stamens either 2 or 4 arranged in pairs and inserted on the corolla; and the ovary superior, 2-carpellate, with axile placentation. The fruit is a two-celled capsule, dehiscing somewhat explosively. In most species, the seeds are attached to a small, hooked stalk (a modified funiculus called a jaculator) that ejects them from the capsule.  +


Bovidae +The largest bovid, the gaur, weighs well over a ton and stands 2.2 metres high at the shoulder; the smallest, the royal antelope, weighs about 3 kg and stands no taller than a large domestic cat. They occupy, and are adapted to, a wide variety of habitat types, from desert to tundra and from thick tropical forest to high mountains. Most members of the family are herbivorous. Many bovids have a solid, stocky build, complex digestive systems (four chambered stomach) and four toes on each foot. Additionally, males of most species have horns, which have been linked to sexual selection.  +


Carnivora +Carnivorans are primarily terrestrial and usually have strong sharp claws, with never fewer than four toes on each foot, and well-developed, prominent canine teeth, cheek teeth (premolars and molars) that generally have cutting edges. The teeth structure and the skull architectures of Carnivores are among their distibguishing features. Members of Carnivora have diverse food habits, although many are primarily carnivorous, and carnivory is widely distributed in mammals, being found in many other orders including Chiroptera, Metatheria, Primates, and Cetacea.  +
Chordata +Chordates form a phylum of creatures that are based on a bilateral body plan, and is defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following: 1) A notochord, 2) A dorsal neural tube 3) Pharyngeal slits 4) A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus and 5) An endostyle  +


Fabaceae +The leaves are stipulate, nearly always alternate, and range from pinnately or palmately compound to simple. Like the other legume families the petiole base is commonly enlarged into a pulvinus. The flowers are slightly to strongly perigynous, zygomorphic, and commonly in racemes, spikes, or heads. The perianth commonly consists of a calyx and corolla of 5 segments each. The petals are overlapping (imbricate) in bud with the posterior petal (called the banner or flag) outermost (i.e., exterior) in position. The petals are basically distinct except for variable connation of the two lowermost ones called the keel petals. The lateral petals are often called the wings. The androecium most commonly consists of 10 stamens in two groups (i.e., they are diadelphous with 9 stamens in one bundle and the 10th stamen more or less distinct). The pistil is simple, comprising a single style and stigma, and a superior ovary with one locule containing 2-many marginal ovules. The fruit is usually a legume. (Source:Hawaii Botany)  +


Lamiales +Members of this species are herbaceous or shrubby, have mono-symmetric flowers and numerous small seeds. Species in this order typically have the following characteristics, although there are exceptions to all of them - 1) superior ovary composed of two fused carpels 2) five petals fused into a tube 3) bilaterally symmetrical, often bilabiate corollas and 4) four (or fewer) fertile stamens  +
Liliopsida +The following features distinguish monocots from dicots - 1) Three flower parts in each flower (vs 4-5 in dicots) 2) One pore in pollen (vs 3) 3) One cotyledon (vs 2) 4) Vascular bundles in stem scattered (vs concentric circles) 5) Adventitious roots (vs radicle-origin) 6) Parallel venation (vs reticulate) These broad distinguishing features indeed have some exceptions  +


Magnoliophyta +These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.  +
Magnoliopsida +Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.  +
Mammalia +Mammals are a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterized by the (1) possession of hair, (2) three middle ear bones -''malleus'', ''incus'' and ''stapes'', (3) a neocortex, and (4) mammary glands functional in mothers with young. Mammalian fossils, however, are identified by the presence of the ''incus'' and ''malleus'' bones in the middle ear. Most mammals also possess sweat glands and specialized teeth, and the largest group of mammals, the '''placentals''', have a placenta which feeds the offspring during gestation. The mammalian brain regulates endothermic and circulatory systems, including a four-chambered heart. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 millimeter (1- to 1.5-inch) Bumblebee Bat to the 33-meter (108-foot) Blue Whale. (Source:Wikipedia)  +
Musaceae +The plants have a large herbaceous growth habit with leaves with overlapping basal sheaths that form a pseudostem making some members appear to be woody trees.  +


Primates +Primates have diversified in arboreal habitats (trees and bushes) and retain many characteristics that are adaptations to this environment. Some of the most distinguishable and important adaptations include presence of opposable thumbs and big toes; a trend towards a reduced snout and flattened face, attributed to a reliance on vision at the expense of olfaction (smell); a complex visual system with stereoscopic vision, high visual acuity and color vision; a highly developed brain and a trend towards holding the torso upright leading to bipedalism.  +


Sapotaceae +Trees or shrubs , usually producing latex. Leaves spirally arranged or alternate and distichous, rarely ± opposite, sometimes crowded at apex of branchlets ; stipules early deciduous or absent; leaf blade papery or leathery, margin entire. Flowers bisexual or unisexual , usually in sessile axillary clusters , rarely solitary; cluster pedunculate or in raceme-like inflorescence, bracteolate . Calyx a single whorl of usually 4--6 sepals, or 2 whorls each with 2--4 sepals. Corolla lobes as many to 2 X as many as sepals, usually entire, rarely with 2 lacerate or lobular appendages . Stamens inserted at corolla base or at throat of corolla tube , as many as and opposite corolla lobes to many and in 2 or 3 whorls; staminodes when present alternate with stamens, scaly to petal-like. Ovary superior, 4- or 5-locular, placentation axillary; ovules 1 per locule, anatropous . Style 1, often apically lobed . Fruit a berry or drupe, 1- to many-seeded. Seed coat brown (pale yellow in Pouteria annamensis), hard, shiny, rich in tannin; endosperm usually oily; seed scar lateral and linear to oblong or basal and round.  +


Zingiberaceae +Small to large herbaceous plants, distichous leaves with basal sheaths that overlap to form a pseudostem. Plants are either self-supporting or epiphytic. Flowers are hermaphroditic, usually strongly zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry), in determinate cymose inflorescences, with conspicuous, spirally arranged bracts. The perianth is composed of two whorls, a fused tubular calyx, and a tubular corolla with one lobe larger than the other two. Flowers typically have two of their stamenoids (sterile stamens) fused to form a petaloid lip, and have only one fertile stamen. The ovary is inferior and topped by two nectaries, the stigma is funnel-shaped.  +