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Santalum album
Biotic zone Eastern Ghats + , Western Ghats + , Central Deccan Plateau + , Indo-Gangetic Plain +
Bloom type Perennial +
Class Magnoliopsida +
Commercial application Human consumption  + , Medicinal use  + , Cosmetic use  + , Religious use  + , Wood  +
Commercial use description Almost all of the sandalwood oil in the woAlmost all of the sandalwood oil in the world is produced from the ''S.album''. The highest content is in the roots followed by the heartwood. Sandalwood oil is used in high-quality perfumes and cosmetics and Ayurvedic creams. India is the largest producer of Sandalwood. Production is based almost entirely on exploitation of wild trees. Sandalwood is also popular as carving wood and for making souvenirs and toys. The wood is used in religious practices in Hinduism. The cotyledons and kernel of sandal seeds contain a fixed oil which has drying properties. Oil-free sandal seed meal is rich in protein and could be utilized as an animal feed if available in sufficient quantities. The oil may also be used as a food additive (GRIN)may also be used as a food additive (GRIN)  +
Common Indian names चंदन Chandan, संदल Sandal (Hindi); চংদন Chचंदन Chandan, संदल Sandal (Hindi); চংদন Chandan (Manipuri); चंदन Chandan, gandhachakoda (Marathi); Anukkam, Asam, சந்தநம் Chandanam (Tamil); ചംദനമ് Chandanam, chandana-mutti (Malayalam); Bhadrasri, చందనమ్ Chandanamu (Telugu); Agarugandha, bavanna, bhadrasri, ಚಂದಲ Chandala (Kannada); চংদন্ Chandan, শ্ৱেতচংদন Shwetchandan (Bengali); valgaka (Oriya); Sandal safaid (Urdu); अनिंदिता Anindita, Arishta-phalam, Bhadrasara, चंदनम् Chandanam (Sanskrit)m, Bhadrasara, चंदनम् Chandanam (Sanskrit)  +
Common hindi name चन्दन Chandan  +
Common name Indian Sandalwood, White Sandalwood  +
Cultivation details Well drained soil needed. Plant in early sWell drained soil needed. Plant in early summer/late spring. The seeds should be soaked in Gibberellic acid at the rate of 0.01grams per litre ofcool boiled water. Young seedlings need lots of water, but later on they mostly manage on their own. Average rainfall from 800mm to 1800mm per annum. It needs company of leguminous plants to grow happily. Sesbania formosa is an ideal intermediate host which it will eventually kill in around 3 to 5 years. This gives its long term host time to establish. Plant spacings are; Intermediate host/sandalwood at 0.5metre and these pairs 3.0m spacing along a row. Long term host such as ''Pterocarpus indicus'' planted in between these. Row spacings are 4.0 metres. (Dave's Garden) Plants which you do not want killed should be planted 25m away from this tree. The plant kills citrus trees. (Dave's Garden) Trees above 60 cm girth can be harvested during the post-monsoon period.The harvested heartwood from stem and roots is chopped and powdered. Sandalwood oil is produced by Steam distillation of this powdered wood. In the 1990's the oil sold for >$180/kg. (FAO)1990's the oil sold for >$180/kg. (FAO)  +
Division/Phylum Magnoliophyta +
Family Santalaceae +
Flower color Lavender/Purple  +
Food use Yes  +
Genus Santalum +
Habitat details Sandalwood is found in the drier regions iSandalwood is found in the drier regions in South India, in the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu, up to 1400 m. Formation of heartwood, which is the source of the sandalwood oil, is said to be best between 600 m and 900 m. Moderate rainfall (850-1200 mm) spread over several months and much sunshine are conducive to good growth. ''S. album'' has become naturalized in parts of Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh and has been introduced into a number of other Indian states. The wood of trees outside their natural range, however, is very variable with respect to oil content and sometimes has little or no aroma.tent and sometimes has little or no aroma.  +
Header caption Fruit and flower of the Indian Sandalwood tree  +
Header image Santalum album (Chandan) in Hyderabad, AP W IMG 0023.jpg  +
IUCN status Vulnerable  +
Introdescription Sandalwood is an economically important plSandalwood is an economically important plant and has been cultivated for several centuries for the fragrance of its oil. Due to extensive and sometimes, illegal cutting of native Sandalwood trees, this species has become vulnerable to extinction. ''S. album'' is native to South/South-East Asia, possibly Indonesia. Another species ''Santalum spicatum'' is native to Australia.antalum spicatum'' is native to Australia.  +
Life cycle details ''S. album'' is a hemi-parasite. It colonizes the roots of other plants to grow. Sandalwood also prefers to be grown alongside leguminous plants such as Acacias, Casuarinas.  +
Location Ahmednagar,India  + , Ajmerkola,India  + , Amaravati,India  + , Bangalore,India  + , Belgaum,India  + , Bellary,India  + , Bhagalpur,India  + , Bhopal,India  + , Bidar,India  + , Bijapur,India  + , Bombay,India  + , Buldana,India  + , Cannanore,India  + , Chamrajnagar,India  + , Chikmaglore,India  + , Chitradurga,India  + , Chittaurgarh,India  + , Coimbatore,India  + , Dakshin Kannada,India  + , Dhar,India  + , Dharmapuri,India  + , Dharwad,India  + , Goa Gorakhpur,India  + , Gwalior,India  + , Hassan,India  + , Hyderabad,India  + , Indore,India  + , Jaipur,India  + , Jhalawar,India  + , Kodagu,India  + , Kolar,India  + , Kolhapur,India  + , Kurnool,India  + , Madras,India  + , Malappuram,India  + , Medak,India  + , Mysore,India  + , Narasimhapur,India  + , Nasik,India  + , Nilgiri,India  + , North East Districts,India  + , North Kanara,India  + , Osmanabad,India  + , Palaghat,India  + , Pulni,India  + , Pune,India  + , Raigad,India  + , Raigarh,India  + , Raipur,India  + , Rathnagiri,India  + , Ratlam,India  + , Rewa,India  + , Salem,India  + , Sambalpur,India  + , Satara,India  + , Shimoga,India  + , South Arcot,India  + , Srikakulam,India  + , Surguja,India  + , Tiruchi,India  + , Tirunelveli,India  + , Tumkur,India  + , Udaipur,India  + , Uttar Kannada,India  + , Visakhapatnam,India  + , Yawatmal,India  +
Medicinal significance Yes  +
Medicinal system Ayurveda + , Folk Medicine +
Modern scientific knowledge description A small, insignificant number of nucleotidA small, insignificant number of nucleotide sequences, mainly of the protein sesquiterpene synthase, are available on NCBI (Sep 2010). Most of the other data pertains to composition of the sandalwood oil. There have been a couple of studies trying to find out the genetic diversity in different sandalwood populations across Australia and Indiaood populations across Australia and India  +
Name meaning ''S. album'' is the type species of the ge''S. album'' is the type species of the genus ''Santalum'', nominated by Linnaeus in the first botanical description; this was published in Species Plantarum in 1753 with the note "Habitat in India". The species name, Santalum ovatum, used by Robert Brown in Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae (1810) was described as a synonym of this species by Alex George in 1984. The epithet album refers to the 'white' of the refers to the 'white' of the heartwood.  +
Native species Yes  +
Order Santalales +
Page creation date 1 September 2010  +
Plant commercial Yes  +
Plant commercial part Root  + , Stem  + , Bark  + , Seeds  +
Plant cultivation state Andhra Pradesh  + , Goa  + , Karnataka  + , Kerala  + , Maharashtra  + , Tamil Nadu  +
Plant height More than 10 feet  +
Plant pest and disease Spike disease +
Plant type Woody (Tree/Shrub)  +
Propagation method Seeds  + , Vegetative propagation  + , Micropropagation  +
Regnum Plantae +
Religious occasion Hindu Puja +
Religious significance Yes  +
Religious use description The heartwood of Sandal is used in religioThe heartwood of Sandal is used in religious pujas to make "Chandan pastes". These pastes are applied to the forehead of gods and of the worshipers. Sandalwood oil is also used in incense sticks used in such pujas. The oil is also offered in the sacred Yajna also offered in the sacred Yajna fires.  +
Species name w:Santalum album +
State Andhra Pradesh  + , Bihar  + , Goa  + , Gujarat  + , Karnataka  + , Kerala  + , Madhya Pradesh  + , Maharashtra  + , Orissa  + , Rajasthan  + , Tamil Nadu  + , Tripura  + , Uttar Pradesh  +
Time of harvesting Summer  +
Time of planting Summer  +
User ID User:Gauravm +
Water need Average  +
Has queryThis property is a special property in this wiki. Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album + , Santalum album +
Categories Pages with a map rendered by the Maps extension  + , Plants  + , Species page  +
Modification dateThis property is a special property in this wiki. 6 September 2010 15:19:53  +
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