Ensete superbum

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Wild plantain (Ensete superbum)
Species name: Ensete superbum

Ensete superbum is a species of banana found only in India (and probably in Thailand). The plant is a very hardy plant and prefers rocky barren areas. It is non-stoloneferous and does not produce suckers. Regeneration by seeds is the only natural means for propagation. Ensete superbum has enormous horticultural value in terms of being an ornamental and medicinal plant. It is resembles a banana plant. Characteristic phyllotaxy on a large pseudostem gives E. superbum, a huge nested-fern appearance. Massive base and red flower head with broad leaves outlined in deep red and deep mid-rib are specific morphological features that add its appeal and aesthetic value.It is best planted as a focal point on a lawn or in a small group making it suitable for a garden or park.

commonly known as: rock banana, wild plantain • Hindi: जंगली केला jungli kela • Kannada: ಕಾಡು ಬಾಳೆ kaadu baale, ಕಲ್ಲು ಬಾಳೆ kallu baale • Konkani: रान क्यांळे raan kyaanle • Malayalam: കല്ല് വാഴ kall vazha • Marathi: चवेणी chaveni, रानकेळ raankel • Sanskrit: बहुजा bahuja • Tamil: கல்வாழை kal-valai, காட்டுவாழை kattu-valai • Telugu: అడవి అరటి adavi arati


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Saroj kumar, Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2011/07/12
This page was last modified on: 11 July 2011 15:21:43
Name of the species Ensete superbum
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 1119983
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Rock banana, Wild plantain
Common Hindi Names जंगली केला jungli kela
Common Indian names Kannada: ಕಾಡು ಬಾಳೆ kaadu baale, ಕಲ್ಲು ಬಾಳೆ kallu baale • Konkani: रान क्यांळे raan kyaanle • Malayalam: കല്ല് വാഴ kall vazha • Marathi: चवेणी chaveni, रानकेळ raankel • Sanskrit: बहुजा bahuja • Tamil: கல்வாழை kal-valai, காட்டுவாழை kattu-valai • Telugu: అడవి అరటి adavi arati Flowers of India
Origins/Meanings of the common names

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:1119983}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Order Zingiberales
Family Musaceae
Genus Ensete
Source of data Encyclopedia of Life

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraLiliopsidaAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Zingiber rubensLiliopsidaBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumLiliopsidaCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
LiliopsidaLiliopsida is considered the scientific name for monocots, but monocots may be called differently based on different taxonomic classification systems. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty. There are ~50000-60000 species of monocots, with the largest family being Orchidaceae (orchids) consisting of ~20000 species. The true grasses (Poaceae) are the most economically important family, with 70% of the crops being cultivated belonging to this family.The following features distinguish monocots from dicots - 1) Three flower parts in each flower (vs 4-5 in dicots) 2) One pore in pollen (vs 3) 3) One cotyledon (vs 2) 4) Vascular bundles in stem scattered (vs concentric circles) 5) Adventitious roots (vs radicle-origin) 6) Parallel venation (vs reticulate) These broad distinguishing features indeed have some exceptions
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Zingiber rubensZingiberalesBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumZingiberalesCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
Curcuma longaZingiberalesCommon Turmericहल्दी Haldi
… further results
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Ensete superbumMusaceaeRock banana, Wild plantainजंगली केला jungli kela
FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MusaceaeThe Musaceae family is native to the tropics of Africa and Asia. As currently circumscribed the family includes either two or three genera (depending upon acceptance of the genus Musella, see below). All of the genera and species are native to the Old World. The largest and most economically important genus in the family is Musa, famous for the banana and plantain. There is ambiguity between some members of Musa and Ensete (CoL 2010 checklist).The plants have a large herbaceous growth habit with leaves with overlapping basal sheaths that form a pseudostem making some members appear to be woody trees.
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Ensete superbumEnseteRock banana, Wild plantainजंगली केला jungli kela

Based on classification

FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MusaceaeThe Musaceae family is native to the tropics of Africa and Asia. As currently circumscribed the family includes either two or three genera (depending upon acceptance of the genus Musella, see below). All of the genera and species are native to the Old World. The largest and most economically important genus in the family is Musa, famous for the banana and plantain. There is ambiguity between some members of Musa and Ensete (CoL 2010 checklist).The plants have a large herbaceous growth habit with leaves with overlapping basal sheaths that form a pseudostem making some members appear to be woody trees.

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyDescription:1119983}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant Plants may grow up to 12 ft in height and the pseudostem may be up to half the height with a swollen base of up to 8 ft in circumference at the base. The leaves are bright green in colour on both sides with a deeply grooved and short petiole. The leaf sheaths are persistent at the base and leave closely set scars on the corm. The fruits are about 3 inches long and more or less triangular with dark brown seeds. The upper parts of the plant die out during the dry season leaving the corm, which forms new leaves at the beginning of the monsoon."Plants may grow up to 12 ft in height and the pseudostem may be up to half the height with a swollen base of up to 8 ft in circumference at the base. The leaves are bright green in colour on both sides with a deeply grooved and short petiole. The leaf sheaths are persistent at the base and leave closely set scars on the corm. The fruits are about 3 inches long and more or less triangular with dark brown seeds. The upper parts of the plant die out during the dry season leaving the corm, which forms new leaves at the beginning of the monsoon." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. Kew bulletin
Seed dispersal mechanism
Bloom type
Life cycle of the plant

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Woody (Tree/Shrub)
Plant height More than 10 feet
Flower color
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves
Leaf shape
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile?
Is the leaf simple or compound?

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status
Indian States in which the species has been documented Goa,Karnataka,Kerala,Maharashtra,Tamil Nadu Plant Database of India
Locations at which the species has been documented Chikmaglore;Hassan;Kodagu;Shimoga;Ahmednagar;Amravati;Kolhapur;Nasik;Pune;Raigad;Satara;Thane;Chengalpattu;Coimbatore Plant Database of India
Biotic zones inhabited Western Ghats, West Coast Plant Database of India
Details about the habitat
Is this species native to India? Yes
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats? Yes
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernFernNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitकटहलWoody (Tree/Shrub)
Boerhavia diffusaRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, SathaHerb
Ensete superbumRock banana, Wild plantainजंगली केला jungli kelaWoody (Tree/Shrub)Western Ghats
West Coast
… further results

If no maps are displayed below, it means the required data is absent. Click on "Edit with form" button on top of the page to add this information.
{{#generateMap:Goa,Karnataka,Kerala,Maharashtra,Tamil Nadu|Ensete_superbum_brahma.svg|align=center}}

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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use?

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating
Specific ailments for which the species is used
Medicinal systems which use this plant
Details of Medicinal use
Parts of the plant used for treatment
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Fruit
Details of use in food preparations
Does this species have any religious significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India?
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Animal consumption
Plant parts of commercial value Fruit
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant


Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Ensete superbum }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

References

Flowers of India (Web): Rock Banana, Accessdate=2011-07-11


EoL, Encyclopedia of Life (Web): Ensete superbum, Accessdate=2011-07-11


Plant Database of India (Web): Plant Database of India, Accessdate=2011-07-11


Kew bulletin (Web): The Musaceae — an annotated list of the species of Ensete, Musa and Musella., Accessdate=2011-07-11