Elettaria cardamomum

From Biodiversity of India
Jump to: navigation, search


Navigation
Read community contributed articles on biodiversity & environment || Cultural practices & mythological stories related to Indian biodiversity || Official documents related to environment || NGOs, Blogs and Websites || Environment-related video collection || Plants of India || Mammals of India || Facebook || Twitter

Share this page: Elettaria cardamomum

Cardamom fruit and seeds
Species name: Elettaria cardamomum

Elettaria cardamomum is the spice Cardamom or "Elaichi" used for cooking in many parts of the world and in India. It is popularly used to spice up tea in India. Cardamom refers to several plants of the genera Elettaria and Amomum in the ginger family Zingiberaceae. Both genera are native to India, they are recognised by their small seed pod, triangular in cross-section and spindle-shaped, with a thin papery outer shell and small black seeds. Elettaria pods are light green while Amomum pods are larger and dark brown. (Source: Wikipedia)


Click here to see all Semantic Properties associated with this page


Please note that the above slideshow is automatically created by searching Flickr and does not contain manually curated images. Hence, it is likely that some images may not be exactly of Elettaria cardamomum.


Click on the tabs below to know more...

[edit]

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/08/15
This page was last modified on: 6 September 2010 15:17:26
Name of the species Elettaria cardamomum
ID on Encyclopedia of Life
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Cardamom, Green cardamom
Common Hindi Names इलाएची Elaichi
Common Indian names इलाएची Elaichi (Hindi);इलाची Elachi (Marathi);Elam Ancha (Tamil);Elatarri (Malayalam);Elaki (Telugu);Elakki (Kannada);Elaichi (Urdu);الاچی,Trutih (Sanskrit) Flowers of India
Origins/Meanings of the common names The word cardamom is derived from the Latin "cardamomum",the romanization of the Greek "καρδάμωμον" (kardamomon), in turn from "κάρδαμον" (kardamon), "cress" + "ἄμωμον" (amomon), a kind of an Indian spice plant. The earliest attested form of the word kardamon is the Mycenaean Greek ka-da-mi-ja, written in Linear B syllabic script. (Wikipedia Cardamom)

Cardamom, popularly known as ‘Queen of Spices’, is the dried fruit of the tall perennial herbaceous plant Elettaria cardamomum Maton, belonging to the family Zingiberaceae. The generic name is probably derived from the ancient Tamil word ‘elattari’ meaning the seed of ‘Elam’ (Sasya Sampada)

It is said that cardamom grew in the gardens of King of Babylon in 720 BC. The ancient Egyptians chewed cardamom to whiten their teeth and simultaneously sweeten their breath. Indian Ayurvedic Medicine used the spice to ‘remove fat’ and as a cure for urinary and skin complaints. Recommended by Apicius, a famous Roman epicure, to counteract over indulgence.

Used in Saudi Arabia for preparing traditional coffee – cardamom drink called ‘Gahwa’, which is given to visitors as a symbol of Arab hospitality and as an inducement to tranquil thoughts. It is a tradition that the ritual of coffee is not disturbed by discussion of business terms, and so negotiations are not entered into until the coffee has been sipped and enjoyed in peace. Gahwa is made from roasted green coffee beans, crushed with brass pestle and mortar and put into a small brass coffee maker with hot water, broken cardamom pods, cardamom seeds, sugar and a pinch of ground cloves. The coffee is then boiled for 2-3 minutes, strained and served ‘black’ in delicate little cups (Sasya Sampada)

Wikipedia Cardamom, Sasya Sampada

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Order Zingiberales
Family Zingiberaceae
Genus Elettaria
Source of data '

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraLiliopsidaAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Zingiber rubensLiliopsidaBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumLiliopsidaCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
LiliopsidaLiliopsida is considered the scientific name for monocots, but monocots may be called differently based on different taxonomic classification systems. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty. There are ~50000-60000 species of monocots, with the largest family being Orchidaceae (orchids) consisting of ~20000 species. The true grasses (Poaceae) are the most economically important family, with 70% of the crops being cultivated belonging to this family.The following features distinguish monocots from dicots - 1) Three flower parts in each flower (vs 4-5 in dicots) 2) One pore in pollen (vs 3) 3) One cotyledon (vs 2) 4) Vascular bundles in stem scattered (vs concentric circles) 5) Adventitious roots (vs radicle-origin) 6) Parallel venation (vs reticulate) These broad distinguishing features indeed have some exceptions
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Zingiber rubensZingiberalesBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumZingiberalesCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
Curcuma longaZingiberalesCommon Turmericहल्दी Haldi
… further results
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Zingiber rubensZingiberaceaeBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumZingiberaceaeCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
Curcuma longaZingiberaceaeCommon Turmericहल्दी Haldi
… further results
FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
ZingiberaceaeZingiberaceae split off from the genus Costaceae ~79 or ~100 million years ago, based on two estimates (Kress06,Janssen04). The family consists of over 93 genera and over 2000 different species, with the center of diversity in South-East Asia.Small to large herbaceous plants, distichous leaves with basal sheaths that overlap to form a pseudostem. Plants are either self-supporting or epiphytic. Flowers are hermaphroditic, usually strongly zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry), in determinate cymose inflorescences, with conspicuous, spirally arranged bracts. The perianth is composed of two whorls, a fused tubular calyx, and a tubular corolla with one lobe larger than the other two. Flowers typically have two of their stamenoids (sterile stamens) fused to form a petaloid lip, and have only one fertile stamen. The ovary is inferior and topped by two nectaries, the stigma is funnel-shaped.
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Elettaria cardamomumElettariaCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi

Based on classification

FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
ZingiberaceaeZingiberaceae split off from the genus Costaceae ~79 or ~100 million years ago, based on two estimates (Kress06,Janssen04). The family consists of over 93 genera and over 2000 different species, with the center of diversity in South-East Asia.Small to large herbaceous plants, distichous leaves with basal sheaths that overlap to form a pseudostem. Plants are either self-supporting or epiphytic. Flowers are hermaphroditic, usually strongly zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry), in determinate cymose inflorescences, with conspicuous, spirally arranged bracts. The perianth is composed of two whorls, a fused tubular calyx, and a tubular corolla with one lobe larger than the other two. Flowers typically have two of their stamenoids (sterile stamens) fused to form a petaloid lip, and have only one fertile stamen. The ovary is inferior and topped by two nectaries, the stigma is funnel-shaped.

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyDescription:}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant A herbaceous perennial plant having subterranean rhizomatous stem with tall (around 5m) tall pseudostem formed by leaf sheaths. The plant has a characteristic fibrous root system of monocots and is very shallow in nature. Leaves are petiolate, distichous, linear, lanceolate, acuminate, sessile or very shortly petioled; glabrous above, softly pubescent beneath, 1-2 feet long and 2-3 inches wide.

Inflorescence is a long panicle, upto about 2 ft. long, erect or prostrate arising directly from the base of the pseudostem. Each panicle bears lateral racemes on which flowers bloom sequentially from base to tip. The number of panicles varies from 2-4 per tiller. Flowers are large, bisexual, attractive, self fertile, zygomorphic, 4-5 cm long and 2 cm across. Individual flowers are consists of tubular calyx and three pale green petals. Bracts 6-7, linear oblong, obtuse about 1.5 inches long; calyx 0.5 in. long, corolla tube white, shortly exserted, lobes 0.5 in. long; lip longer, white stripped with violet; capsule subtrigonous, about 0.4 in. long, striate. The androecium consists of a single fertile stamen, of the five others, one is completely absent, two modified into a labellum and the remaining two form staminodes. The filiform style protrudes through the groove between the anther lobes. Stigma is funnel shaped, ciliated and the surface is sticky. Fruits are small, trilocular many seeded capsules. The capsules are fusiform to ovoid in shape and pale green to deep green in colour. Mature seeds are hard, brownish black covered with thin mucilaginous aril inside the fruit wall"A herbaceous perennial plant having subterranean rhizomatous stem with tall (around 5m) tall pseudostem formed by leaf sheaths. The plant has a characteristic fibrous root system of monocots and is very shallow in nature. Leaves are petiolate, distichous, linear, lanceolate, acuminate, sessile or very shortly petioled; glabrous above, softly pubescent beneath, 1-2 feet long and 2-3 inches wide.

Inflorescence is a long panicle, upto about 2 ft. long, erect or prostrate arising directly from the base of the pseudostem. Each panicle bears lateral racemes on which flowers bloom sequentially from base to tip. The number of panicles varies from 2-4 per tiller. Flowers are large, bisexual, attractive, self fertile, zygomorphic, 4-5 cm long and 2 cm across. Individual flowers are consists of tubular calyx and three pale green petals. Bracts 6-7, linear oblong, obtuse about 1.5 inches long; calyx 0.5 in. long, corolla tube white, shortly exserted, lobes 0.5 in. long; lip longer, white stripped with violet; capsule subtrigonous, about 0.4 in. long, striate. The androecium consists of a single fertile stamen, of the five others, one is completely absent, two modified into a labellum and the remaining two form staminodes. The filiform style protrudes through the groove between the anther lobes. Stigma is funnel shaped, ciliated and the surface is sticky. Fruits are small, trilocular many seeded capsules. The capsules are fusiform to ovoid in shape and pale green to deep green in colour. Mature seeds are hard, brownish black covered with thin mucilaginous aril inside the fruit wall" cannot be used as a page name in this wiki.

Sasya Sampada
Seed dispersal mechanism Entomophily (By insects)
Bloom type Perennial Flowers of India, Wikipedia
Life cycle of the plant The flowering period is during March-September with peak period during June-August. The mean number of days required from initiation of flower to opening of last flower in the panicle is 210. The mean number of days to reach full bloom from bud initiation is 34.5. Time taken for full maturity of a capsule from flower opening is 114 days. The flowers remain open for a period of 13-14 hours. Flower opening starts at 4.15 am and extends up to 9.00 am during winter. Maximum flower opening is during 5 to 6 am. Dehiscence of anthers occurred within half an hour of flower opening. The highest percentage of pollen germination occurred between 6 to 10 am. Stigmatic receptivity is maximum during 8 to 11 am. The flowers are often cross-pollinated but self-pollination is not uncommon. Young panicles require 6- months to complete the flowering and flowering to harvest stage of capsule is extended about 120-130 days depending on the climatic conditions.

Cardamom flower is bisexual and is adapted to entomophilous type of pollination. They very structure of the flower, attractive nature of the petals, and the production of nectar in the epigynous glands are adaptations for accomplishing cross-pollination.

The chief pollinator of cardamom is honey bee. Two species namely Apis cerana indica and A. dorsata contribute to over 90% of pollination. Peak foraging is recorded between 9 am and 11 am depending upon environmental conditions. Three to five visits per flower is optimum for pollination. The flora in cardamom plantation comprises of 37 species, out of which 19 are trees. Shade trees such as Vernonia arborea, Ficus retusa and Cassia fistula are the major sources for nectar. A limited pollination occurred through ants and rainwater.

Sasya Sampada

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Herb
Plant height More than 10 feet Sasya Sampada
Flower color
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves
Leaf shape Lanceolate Sasya Sampada
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile? Petiolated Sasya Sampada
Is the leaf simple or compound?

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status Not Evaluated EoL
Indian States in which the species has been documented Karnataka,Kerala,Pondicherry,Tamil Nadu Sasya Sampada
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited Western Ghats
Details about the habitat Cardamom is a shade loving plant (40-60%) cultivated in an altitude of 600 to 1200 m above MSL with an annual rainfall of 1500 to 4000 mm and a temperature range of 10 to 35°C. It is susceptible to wind and hence, gentle sloppy lands facing eastern or northern directions are considered ideal for its cultivation. It is generally grown in the evergreen forests where the surface soil is enriched by the deposition of organic matter due to organic recycling. The cardamom soils are found to be clay loam, distinctly acidic (5.0 to 6.6 pH), rich in organic matter (5.92%) and low in available phosphorous (14.71 kg/ha) and potassium (156.2 kg/ha) depicting the characteristics of the humid tropic soils (Kulkarni et al., 1971). It grows on a variety of soils from white quartz gravel, with only a shallow zone of humus accumulation, to chocolate coloured forest loams extending to considerable depths below the humus layer and red loamy soils. The soil depth is fairly deep with good drainage. Most of the cardamom growing soils are situated in heavy rainfall areas and therefore suffers from leaching of nutrients (Zachariah 1975) Sasya Sampada
Is this species native to India? Yes Wikipedia
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats? Yes Sasya Sampada
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Abelmoschus moschatusOkra, Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okraमुश्कदाना Mushkdana, कस्तूरीदाना Kasturi-dana, जंगली भिंडी Jangli bhindiYes
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiYesNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernYesNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Aegle marmelosBel, Beli fruit, Bengal quince, Stone apple, Wood appleबेल BelYes
Allium sativumCultivated Garlicलेह्सन LehsanYes
… further results

If no maps are displayed below, it means the required data is absent. Click on "Edit with form" button on top of the page to add this information.
{{#generateMap:Karnataka,Kerala,Pondicherry,Tamil Nadu|Elettariacardamomum_brahma.svg|align=center}}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Alpinia calcarataSnap Ginger, Cardamom ginger, Indian gingerकुलंजन KulanjanZingiberaceaePains and InflammationAlpinia calcarata is used atleast in Sri Lanka as a folk medicine for pain relief. Some studies from University of Colombo have tried to study the effect of ethanolic extracts and hot water extracts on reproductive competence and pain relief in rats.
Curcuma zedoariaWhite turmeric, Zedoaryजंगली हऴदी Jangli HaldiZingiberaceae
Elettaria cardamomumCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची ElaichiZingiberaceaeCardamom is used as an adjuvant to carminative drugs. It is officially recognised in British and US pharmacopoeias and used as an aromatic stimulant, carminative and flavouring agent. It can be used to ease cigarette addiction. Eating a few seeds of cardamom can safely be recommended to initially minimise the number if cigarettes being smoked, and slowly the smoker may give up the chronic addiction to chain smoking
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating
Specific ailments for which the species is used
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda Sasya Sampada
Details of Medicinal use Cardamom is used as an adjuvant to carminative drugs. It is officially recognised in British and US pharmacopoeias and used as an aromatic stimulant, carminative and flavouring agent. It can be used to ease cigarette addiction. Eating a few seeds of cardamom can safely be recommended to initially minimise the number if cigarettes being smoked, and slowly the smoker may give up the chronic addiction to chain smoking Sasya Sampada
Parts of the plant used for treatment Fruit, Seeds Sasya Sampada
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant Most of the active compounds come from the volatile Cardamom oil, which varies from 6 to 10% of the mature seed weight. Sasya Sampada
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Fruit, Seeds
Details of use in food preparations Cardamom is used in several Indian food preparations. In industry, it is used to flavor pickles, canned soup, baked goods, condiments, sauces and meat. A very popular use of Cardamom in India, especially southern part of India, is as a spice in tea and coffee.
Does this species have any religious significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species Sasya Sampada
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Medicinal use, Cosmetic use Sasya Sampada
Plant parts of commercial value Flower, Fruit Sasya Sampada
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use Mostly used for food preparations. Some other uses also exist, such as adjuvant for some drugs and in perfumes. Sasya Sampada
States where this plant is cultivated commercially Karnataka, Kerala, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu Sasya Sampada
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant Winter, Post-monsoon
Method of propagation Seeds, Vegetative propagation, Micropropagation Sasya Sampada
Water requirement of this plant High Based on Sasya Sampada
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant Cardamom is a shade loving plant (40-60%) cultivated in an altitude of 600 to 1200 m above MSL with an annual rainfall of 1500 to 4000 mm and a temperature range of 10 to 35°C. It is susceptible to wind and hence, gentle sloppy lands facing eastern or northern directions are considered ideal for its cultivation. It is generally grown in the evergreen forests where the surface soil is enriched by the deposition of organic matter due to organic recycling. The cardamom soils are found to be clay loam, distinctly acidic (5.0 to 6.6 pH), rich in organic matter (5.92%) and low in available phosphorous (14.71 kg/ha) and potassium (156.2 kg/ha) depicting the characteristics of the humid tropic soils (Kulkarni et al., 1971). It grows on a variety of soils from white quartz gravel, with only a shallow zone of humus accumulation, to chocolate coloured forest loams extending to considerable depths below the humus layer and red loamy soils. The soil depth is fairly deep with good drainage. Most of the cardamom growing soils are situated in heavy rainfall areas and therefore suffers from leaching of nutrients (Zachariah 1975) Sasya Sampada
Loading map...

Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

The page may take some time to load since LigerCat is searching the entire PubMed database and sending us the results in real time.

  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Elettaria cardamomum }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

Click here to go to Google Images





Cardamom plant
Illustration of cardamom plant parts

References

Wikipedia Cardamom (Web): Wikipedia Cardamom entry, Accessdate=2010-08-15


Flowers of India (Web): Flowers of India entry on Cardamom, Accessdate=2010-08-15


EoL (Web): Encyclopedia of Life entry, Accessdate=2010-08-15


Sasya Sampada (Web): Sasya Sampada entry on Cardamom, Accessdate=2010-08-20