Cinnamomum tamala

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Dried leaves of Tejpatta
Species name: Cinnamomum tamala

Cinnamomum tamala or Indian Bark is a commonly used plant known by the name Tejpatta in India. It is native to India. The leaves of the species are used as a popular spice in several Indian dishes, particularly in Northern India. The leaves have a cinnamon-like aroma (as the species name would suggest). The bark of this tree is also used as a spice. The leaves are also used in the perfume industry for their fragrance.


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/10/19
This page was last modified on: 20 October 2010 03:47:22
Name of the species Cinnamomum tamala
ID on Encyclopedia of Life
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Indian Bay Leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark, Tamala cassia, Malabar Leaf
Common Hindi Names तेजपत्ता tejpatta
Common Indian names तेजपत्ता tejpatta (Hindi);তেজপাত Tejpat (Manipuri);தாளிசபத்திரி Talishappattiri (Tamil);തമാലപത്രമ് Tamalapatram (Malayalam);Talisapatri, Talisha, Patta akulu (Telugu);Patraka (Kannada);তেজপাত Tejpat (Bengali);तेज़पात Tezpat (Urdu);Mahpat, তেজপাত Tejpat (Assamese);તમાલપત્ર Tamaal patra (Gujarati);तमालपत्र tamalapattra (Sanskrit) Flowers of India
Origins/Meanings of the common names The Hindi name Tejpatta means "Intense leaf". The name tries to highlight the intense flavoring conferred by the leaf, which is added to Indian dishes as a spice. The Linnean species name tamala comes from the Indian word for the leaf तमाल पत्र Tamaal patra. Gauravm

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Laurales
Family Lauraceae
Genus Cinnamomum
Source of data Encyclopedia of Life

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Acacia niloticaMagnoliopsidaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaMagnoliopsidaAshokaअशोक Ashok
Adansonia digitataMagnoliopsidaBaobabGorakh imli गोरख इमली
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliopsidaMagnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty.Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Cinnamomum tamalaLauralesIndian Bay Leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark, Tamala cassia, Malabar Leafतेजपत्ता tejpatta
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Cinnamomum tamalaLauraceaeIndian Bay Leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark, Tamala cassia, Malabar Leafतेजपत्ता tejpatta
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Cinnamomum tamalaCinnamomumIndian Bay Leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark, Tamala cassia, Malabar Leafतेजपत्ता tejpatta

Based on classification

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

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General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant Trees, medium sized, up to 10 m tall; branchlets slender. Terminal bud small, sericeous, 2 bud scales. Leaves sub-opposite or spirally arranged, chartaceous to sub-coriaceous, glabrous in mature specimens, ovate, oblong to lanceolate, 2.5-8 x 7.5-25 cm, apex long acuminate, base acute; above smooth, the main nerves prominulous, below obscurely, densely minutely reticulate, midrib slender, prominent, basal nerves prominent, 4/5 or more of the lamina length, connected by faint, parallel secondary veins, 3-5 mm apart. Petiole slender, up to 1.5 cm long. Panicles axillary or pseudoterminal, slender, many-flowered, up to 10 cm long. Pedicels filiform, 4-8 mm long. Flower tuber short. Tepals oblong, 3-4 mm, inside sericeous. Stamens slightly shorter than the tepals; anthers oval, c. the filament length, 4-celled, of whorls 1 and 2 introrse, of whorl 3, the basal cells extrorse, the smaller upper ones latrorse; gland small, attached to the middle of the filaments. Staminodes as long as the stamens, hastate, long-stipitate. Style thickish, as long as the ovary; stigma small, peltate. Fruit slender, ellipsoid, acutish, up to 7 x 11 mm; cup obconical, fleshy, up to 5 mm high and 7 mm in diameter at the rim, the basal part obconical, merging into the, up to 8 mm long, obconical pedicel; 1-2 mm long basal part of the tepals in fruit hardened, persistent."Trees, medium sized, up to 10 m tall; branchlets slender. Terminal bud small, sericeous, 2 bud scales. Leaves sub-opposite or spirally arranged, chartaceous to sub-coriaceous, glabrous in mature specimens, ovate, oblong to lanceolate, 2.5-8 x 7.5-25 cm, apex long acuminate, base acute; above smooth, the main nerves prominulous, below obscurely, densely minutely reticulate, midrib slender, prominent, basal nerves prominent, 4/5 or more of the lamina length, connected by faint, parallel secondary veins, 3-5 mm apart. Petiole slender, up to 1.5 cm long. Panicles axillary or pseudoterminal, slender, many-flowered, up to 10 cm long. Pedicels filiform, 4-8 mm long. Flower tuber short. Tepals oblong, 3-4 mm, inside sericeous. Stamens slightly shorter than the tepals; anthers oval, c. the filament length, 4-celled, of whorls 1 and 2 introrse, of whorl 3, the basal cells extrorse, the smaller upper ones latrorse; gland small, attached to the middle of the filaments. Staminodes as long as the stamens, hastate, long-stipitate. Style thickish, as long as the ovary; stigma small, peltate. Fruit slender, ellipsoid, acutish, up to 7 x 11 mm; cup obconical, fleshy, up to 5 mm high and 7 mm in diameter at the rim, the basal part obconical, merging into the, up to 8 mm long, obconical pedicel; 1-2 mm long basal part of the tepals in fruit hardened, persistent." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. EoL through eFloras
Seed dispersal mechanism
Bloom type Perennial
Life cycle of the plant

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Woody (Tree/Shrub)
Plant height More than 10 feet
Flower color Yellow, Green
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves Opposite
Leaf shape Oblanceolate
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile? Petiolated
Is the leaf simple or compound? Simple

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status
Indian States in which the species has been documented
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited Northeastern Himalayas, Northwestern Himalayas, Indo-Gangetic Plain
Details about the habitat
Is this species native to India? Yes Joshi09
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions? Yes Joshi09
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Abelmoschus moschatusOkra, Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okraमुश्कदाना Mushkdana, कस्तूरीदाना Kasturi-dana, जंगली भिंडी Jangli bhindiYes
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiYesNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernYesNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Aegle marmelosBel, Beli fruit, Bengal quince, Stone apple, Wood appleबेल BelYes
Allium sativumCultivated Garlicलेह्सन LehsanYes
… further results

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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Cinnamomum tamalaIndian Bay Leaf, Indian cassia, Indian cassia bark, Tamala cassia, Malabar Leafतेजपत्ता tejpattaLauraceaeInfectious diseases
Common ailments
Systemic disorders
Leaf extracts have been shown to have lipid-reducing and blood-sugar reducing actions. They may also be fungicidal. In mice, Garam Masala has been shown to affect cancer progression and influence macrophage functions.
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Infectious diseases, Common ailments, Systemic disorders
Specific ailments for which the species is used
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Folk Medicine
Details of Medicinal use Leaf extracts have been shown to have lipid-reducing and blood-sugar reducing actions. They may also be fungicidal. In mice, Garam Masala has been shown to affect cancer progression and influence macrophage functions. Google Scholar Search, Kala07
Parts of the plant used for treatment Leaves
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Bark, Leaves
Details of use in food preparations [[Food use description::Tejpatta is used frequently in Indian cooking, especially in North Indian Mughlai foods such as biryani [बिरयानी] and Kormas. The leaves are an important component of Garam Masala. The taste and aroma of the leaf mainly comes from the monoterpenoids such as Linalool present in the leaf.]]
Does this species have any religious significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Medicinal use, Cosmetic use
Plant parts of commercial value Bark, Leaves
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use Used all over India for cooking. Is an important ingredient in many pre-packaged foods too. Is a constituent of Chyawanprash. Leaves are also used in the perfume industry for their fragrance. Gauravm
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant


Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Cinnamomum tamala }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

References

Joshi09 (Journal) : Joshi SC, Padalia RC, Bisht DS, Mathela CS. (2009 Sep),Terpenoid diversity in the leaf essential oils of Himalayan Lauraceae species., Chem Biodivers.:6(9):1364-73.. doi={{{doi}}}


Kala07 (Journal) : Kar et al (January 2003),Comparative evaluation of hypoglycaemic activity of some Indian medicinal plants in alloxan diabetic rats, Journal of Ethnopharmacology:84(1):105-108. doi=10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00144-7


Rao (Journal) : AR Rao, S Hashim (1995),Chemopreventive action of oriental food-seasoning spices mixture Garam masala on DMBA-induced transplacental and translactational carcinogenesis in mice, Nutrition and cancer:23(1):91-101. doi={{{doi}}}


Encyclopedia of Life (Web): Encyclopedia of Life entry, Accessdate=2010-10-19


eFloras (Web): eFloras of Pakistan, Accessdate=2010-10-19


Flowers of India (Web): Flowers of India:Bay Leaf, Accessdate=2010-10-19


ENVIS (Web): ENVIS entry on this species, Accessdate=2010-10-19