Tinospora cordifolia

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Leaves of the plant
Species name: Tinospora cordifolia

The plant is indigenous to the Indian subcontinent and has been used in Ayurveda for several centuries as a hepato-protectant (liver protection). Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of T. cordifolia extract and turmeric extract is effective in preventing the hepatotoxicity which is otherwise produced as a side effect of conventional pharmaceutical treatments for tuberculosis using drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin.


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/11/01
This page was last modified on: 24 November 2010 03:25:31
Name of the species Tinospora cordifolia
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 5518139
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Gulbel, Indian Tinospora
Common Hindi Names गिलोय Giloy, गुलांचा Gulancha, गुलबेल Gulbel
Common Indian names गिलोय Giloy, गुलांचा Gulancha, गुलबेल Gulbel (Hindi);Ningthou khongli (Manipuri);गुलवेल Gulvel(Marathi); Kunali (Tamil); Manapala (Telugu);Madhuparni (Kannada);Nimgilo (Bengali); Amritvel (Konkani); Hoguni-lot (Assamese); Guruchi (Sanskrit) Flowers of India, Wikipedia
Origins/Meanings of the common names

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

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{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:5518139}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Ranunculales
Family Menispermaceae
Genus Tinospora
Source of data Encyclopedia of Life through NCBI Taxonomy

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Acacia niloticaMagnoliopsidaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaMagnoliopsidaAshokaअशोक Ashok
Adansonia digitataMagnoliopsidaBaobabGorakh imli गोरख इमली
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliopsidaMagnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty.Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Tinospora cordifoliaRanunculalesGulbel, Indian Tinosporaगिलोय Giloy, गुलांचा Gulancha, गुलबेल Gulbel
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Tinospora cordifoliaMenispermaceaeGulbel, Indian Tinosporaगिलोय Giloy, गुलांचा Gulancha, गुलबेल Gulbel
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Tinospora cordifoliaTinosporaGulbel, Indian Tinosporaगिलोय Giloy, गुलांचा Gulancha, गुलबेल Gulbel

Based on classification

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

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{{#EoLOnlyDescription:5518139}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant The plant is a glabrous climbing shrub found throughout India, typically growing in deciduous and dry forests. The leaves are heart shaped. The succulent bark is creamy white to grey in color, with deep clefts spotted with lenticels. It puts out long, slender aerial roots, often growing on mango or neem trees.(Wagner) Flowers are yellow, growing in lax racemes from nodes on old wood. Fruits are drupes, turning red when ripe."The plant is a glabrous climbing shrub found throughout India, typically growing in deciduous and dry forests. The leaves are heart shaped. The succulent bark is creamy white to grey in color, with deep clefts spotted with lenticels. It puts out long, slender aerial roots, often growing on mango or neem trees.(Wagner) Flowers are yellow, growing in lax racemes from nodes on old wood. Fruits are drupes, turning red when ripe." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. Wikipedia, Wagner
Seed dispersal mechanism
Bloom type Perennial
Life cycle of the plant

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Vine
Plant height
Flower color
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves
Leaf shape Obovate
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile? Petiolated
Is the leaf simple or compound? Simple

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status
Indian States in which the species has been documented
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited
Details about the habitat
Is this species native to India? Yes
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernFernNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitकटहलWoody (Tree/Shrub)
Boerhavia diffusaRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, SathaHerb
Ensete superbumRock banana, Wild plantainजंगली केला jungli kelaWoody (Tree/Shrub)Western Ghats
West Coast
… further results

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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Tinospora cordifoliaGulbel, Indian Tinosporaगिलोय Giloy, गुलांचा Gulancha, गुलबेल GulbelMenispermaceaeOrgan-specific disordersTinospora cordifolia and similar species like Tinospora crispa and Tinospora rumphii Boerl are used in Ayurvedic and Jamu herbal medicine as a hepatoprotectant, protecting the liver from damage that may occur following exposure to toxins, as well as in Thailand, Philippines. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of T. cordifolia extract and turmeric extract is effective in preventing the hepatotoxicity which is otherwise produced as a side effect of conventional pharmaceutical treatments for tuberculosis using drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin.(Adhvaryu) According to the 1918 United States Dispensatory, the plant has a long history of use in India as a medicine and in the preparation of a starch known as gilae-ka-sat or as palo.
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Organ-specific disorders
Specific ailments for which the species is used Liver protection, Hepatitis, Tuberculosis Adhvaryu, Wikipedia
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Modern Medicine
Details of Medicinal use Tinospora cordifolia and similar species like Tinospora crispa and Tinospora rumphii Boerl are used in Ayurvedic and Jamu herbal medicine as a hepatoprotectant, protecting the liver from damage that may occur following exposure to toxins, as well as in Thailand, Philippines. Recent research has demonstrated that a combination of T. cordifolia extract and turmeric extract is effective in preventing the hepatotoxicity which is otherwise produced as a side effect of conventional pharmaceutical treatments for tuberculosis using drugs such as isoniazid and rifampicin.(Adhvaryu)

According to the 1918 United States Dispensatory, the plant has a long history of use in India as a medicine and in the preparation of a starch known as gilae-ka-sat or as palo.

Wikipedia, Adhvaryu
Parts of the plant used for treatment
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations?
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations
Details of use in food preparations
Does this species have any religious significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India?
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated
Plant parts of commercial value
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant


Pubmed Word cloud

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Tinospora cordifolia }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

References

Adhvaryu (Journal) : Adhvaryu MR, Reddy MN, Vakharia BC. (2008),[www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/14/4753.pdf Prevention of hepatotoxicity due to anti tuberculosis treatment: A novel integrative approach.], World Journal of Gastroenterology:14(30):4753. doi={{{doi}}}


Wagner (Book) : Wagner, Hildebert (1999),', ISBN: 9783764358488


FoI (Web): Flowers of India entry, Accessdate=2010-11-01


Wikipedia (Web): Wikipedia entry, Accessdate=2010-11-01