Justicia adhatoda

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Flower of the plant
Species name: Justicia adhatoda

Justicia adhatoda, also known by its synonym Adhatoda vasica or by its Indian name अडुळसा (Adulsa), is a hardy plant that grows in low water conditions. It is a very popular medicinal plant in Ayurveda and is used for treating cough and cold. Its chief active chemical components are the alkaloids Vasicinone and Vasicine that have been shown to have bronchodilatory and respiro-stimulatory activity.


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/10/22
This page was last modified on: 24 November 2010 02:38:26
Name of the species Justicia adhatoda
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 596715
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Malabar Nut
Common Hindi Names अडुळसा Adulsa
Common Indian names अडुळसा Adulsa, अर्शा Arsha, वासाला Vasala (Hindi); Nongmangkha angouba (Manipuri); ஆடாதோடை Adatodai (Tamil); Basak (Bengali); अडुसा adusa, aruha, अरुष arusha, arusak, अटरुष atrusha, basak, भिशाङगमाता bhishangamata, कफाहारी kaphahari, सिंही simhi, सिंहिका simhika, सिंहपर्णी sinhaparni, सिंहमुखी simhamukhi, vaidya mata, vajeedantaka, vansa, वासा vasa, वासक vasaka.(Sanskrit) Flowers of India, Wikipedia
Origins/Meanings of the common names

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

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{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:596715}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Lamiales
Family Acanthaceae
Genus Justicia
Source of data Encyclopedia of Life

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Acacia niloticaMagnoliopsidaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaMagnoliopsidaAshokaअशोक Ashok
Adansonia digitataMagnoliopsidaBaobabGorakh imli गोरख इमली
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliopsidaMagnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty.Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Jasminum officinaleLamialesCommon Jasmine, Poet's Jasmine, Spanish Jasmineचमेली Chameli
Martynia diandraLamialesDevil's Claws, Tiger's Clawउलट-कांटा Ulat-kanta, बाघनख Baghnakh
Ocimum tenuiflorumLamialesHoly Basil, Indian Basilतुलसी Tulsi
… further results
OrderTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
LamialesSpecies in this order probably arose ~70-100 million years ago based on various estimates. Lamiales contain ~12% of eudicot diversity. Well-known or economically important members of this order include lavender, lilac, olive, jasmine, the ash tree, teak, snapdragon, sesame, psyllium, and a number of table herbs such as mint, basil, and rosemary.Members of this species are herbaceous or shrubby, have mono-symmetric flowers and numerous small seeds. Species in this order typically have the following characteristics, although there are exceptions to all of them - 1) superior ovary composed of two fused carpels 2) five petals fused into a tube 3) bilaterally symmetrical, often bilabiate corollas and 4) four (or fewer) fertile stamens
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Hygrophila auriculataAcanthaceaeHygrophila, Temple plant, Marsh Barbelतालीम ख़ाना Talim Khana
Justicia adhatodaAcanthaceaeMalabar Nutअडुळसा Adulsa
Barleria prionitisAcanthaceaePorcupine flowerवज्राद्नती Vajradanti
… further results
FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
AcanthaceaeThe family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is one of the most successful Angiosperm dicot taxon. It contains almost 250 genera and 2500-4000 species. These species are mostly distributed in the tropics as herbs, shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. The representatives of the family can be found in nearly every habitat, including dense or open forests, in scrublands, on wet fields and valleys, at the sea coast and in marine areas, and in swamps and as an element of mangrove woods.Plants in this family have simple, opposite, decussate leaves with entire (or sometimes toothed, lobed, or spiny) margins, and without stipules. The leaves may contain cystoliths, calcium carbonate concretions, seen as streaks on the surface.

The flowers are perfect, zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic, and arranged in an inflorescence that is either a spike, raceme, or cyme. Typically there is a colorful bract subtending each flower; in some species the bract is large and showy. The calyx is usually 4-5 lobed; the corolla tubular, 2-lipped or 5-lobed; stamens either 2 or 4 arranged in pairs and inserted on the corolla; and the ovary superior, 2-carpellate, with axile placentation.

The fruit is a two-celled capsule, dehiscing somewhat explosively. In most species, the seeds are attached to a small, hooked stalk (a modified funiculus called a jaculator) that ejects them from the capsule.
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Justicia adhatodaJusticiaMalabar Nutअडुळसा Adulsa
Justicia procumbensJusticiaWater willow, Shrimp plantकरंबल Karambal (Marathi)

Based on classification

FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
AcanthaceaeThe family Acanthaceae (or Acanthus family) is one of the most successful Angiosperm dicot taxon. It contains almost 250 genera and 2500-4000 species. These species are mostly distributed in the tropics as herbs, shrubs, or twining vines; some are epiphytes. The representatives of the family can be found in nearly every habitat, including dense or open forests, in scrublands, on wet fields and valleys, at the sea coast and in marine areas, and in swamps and as an element of mangrove woods.Plants in this family have simple, opposite, decussate leaves with entire (or sometimes toothed, lobed, or spiny) margins, and without stipules. The leaves may contain cystoliths, calcium carbonate concretions, seen as streaks on the surface.

The flowers are perfect, zygomorphic to nearly actinomorphic, and arranged in an inflorescence that is either a spike, raceme, or cyme. Typically there is a colorful bract subtending each flower; in some species the bract is large and showy. The calyx is usually 4-5 lobed; the corolla tubular, 2-lipped or 5-lobed; stamens either 2 or 4 arranged in pairs and inserted on the corolla; and the ovary superior, 2-carpellate, with axile placentation.

The fruit is a two-celled capsule, dehiscing somewhat explosively. In most species, the seeds are attached to a small, hooked stalk (a modified funiculus called a jaculator) that ejects them from the capsule.

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

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{{#EoLOnlyDescription:596715}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant An erect much branched, gregarious, evergreen shrub, up to 2 (-2.5) m. Stem ± quadrangular to nearly terete, young shoots greyish-pubescent Leaves with (1-) 1.5-3.5 (-4.5) cm long petioles; lamina elliptic-lanceolate, 10-20 x 3.5-8 cm, glabrous above, pubescent on nerves beneath, basally attenuate, entire, acuinate. Flowers white, c. 3 cm long, nearly sessile, in terminal and axillary spikes, up to 10 cm long, 2.5-3 cm broad; bracts leafy, broadly-elliptic, 1.5-2.5 x (0.8) 1-1.5 (-1.8) cm, pubescent; bracteoles elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, 1-1.5 (-2) x 0.3-0.5 cm, acute, minutely pubescent. Calyx 5-lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate, 6-10 x c. 2 mm, acute, puberulous, imbricate. Corolla pale-white, tube 1.2-1.5 cm long, pubescent outside, throat villous, limb 2-lipped, upper lip erect, shortly bifid, galeate, lower lip with 3 elliptic, obtuse lobes. Stamens 2, filaments 1-1.5 cm long, anthers oblong, basally apiculate. Ovary oblong, c. 3 mm long, style 2-2.5 cm long. Capsule stipitate, broadly clavate, c. 2.5 cm long, 4-seeded, pubescent. Seeds ± orbicular, 2-3 mm across, glabrous."An erect much branched, gregarious, evergreen shrub, up to 2 (-2.5) m. Stem ± quadrangular to nearly terete, young shoots greyish-pubescent Leaves with (1-) 1.5-3.5 (-4.5) cm long petioles; lamina elliptic-lanceolate, 10-20 x 3.5-8 cm, glabrous above, pubescent on nerves beneath, basally attenuate, entire, acuinate. Flowers white, c. 3 cm long, nearly sessile, in terminal and axillary spikes, up to 10 cm long, 2.5-3 cm broad; bracts leafy, broadly-elliptic, 1.5-2.5 x (0.8) 1-1.5 (-1.8) cm, pubescent; bracteoles elliptic-oblong to lanceolate, 1-1.5 (-2) x 0.3-0.5 cm, acute, minutely pubescent. Calyx 5-lobed, lobes linear-lanceolate, 6-10 x c. 2 mm, acute, puberulous, imbricate. Corolla pale-white, tube 1.2-1.5 cm long, pubescent outside, throat villous, limb 2-lipped, upper lip erect, shortly bifid, galeate, lower lip with 3 elliptic, obtuse lobes. Stamens 2, filaments 1-1.5 cm long, anthers oblong, basally apiculate. Ovary oblong, c. 3 mm long, style 2-2.5 cm long. Capsule stipitate, broadly clavate, c. 2.5 cm long, 4-seeded, pubescent. Seeds ± orbicular, 2-3 mm across, glabrous." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. Encyclopedia of Life through eFloras
Seed dispersal mechanism
Bloom type
Life cycle of the plant Fl. Per.: November-April (plains); July-October (hills). Encyclopedia of Life through eFloras

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Woody (Tree/Shrub)
Plant height 3 feet to 6 feet
Flower color
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves
Leaf shape
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile?
Is the leaf simple or compound?

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status
Indian States in which the species has been documented
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited
Details about the habitat
Is this species native to India?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

Plant is not native or native status not filled in

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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use?

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating
Specific ailments for which the species is used
Medicinal systems which use this plant
Details of Medicinal use
Parts of the plant used for treatment
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations?
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations
Details of use in food preparations
Does this species have any religious significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India?
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated
Plant parts of commercial value
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant


Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Justicia adhatoda }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

References

Encyclopedia of Life (Web): Encyclopedia of Life entry, Accessdate=2010-10-22


eFloras (Web): eFloras of Pakistan, Accessdate=2010-10-22


Flowers of India (Web): Flowers of India entry, Accessdate=2010-10-22