Boerhavia diffusa

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A plume moth pollinating the B. diffusa flowers
Species name: Boerhavia diffusa

Boerhavia diffusa is a weed growing in many parts of India. It had edible leaves. Roots of this plant are used by many tribes in India for their analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. The name Punarnava means that which rejuvenates. This plant is an ingredient of Dabur Chawanprash.


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/10/22
This page was last modified on: 24 November 2010 02:40:07
Name of the species Boerhavia diffusa
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 488528
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Red hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, Wineflower
Common Hindi Names Punarnava, Satha
Common Indian names Punarnava, Satha (Hindi);Adakaputtana gida (Kannada) Flowers of India
Origins/Meanings of the common names The name Punarnava means that which rejuvenates or renews the body Wikipedia

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:488528}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Caryophyllales
Family Nyctaginaceae
Genus Boerhavia
Source of data Encyclopedia of Life

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Acacia niloticaMagnoliopsidaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaMagnoliopsidaAshokaअशोक Ashok
Adansonia digitataMagnoliopsidaBaobabGorakh imli गोरख इमली
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliopsidaMagnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty.Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Achyranthes asperaCaryophyllalesPrickly Chaff Flower, Chaff-flower, Crocus stuff, Crokars staff, Devil's horsewhip
Boerhavia diffusaCaryophyllalesRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, Satha
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Boerhavia diffusaNyctaginaceaeRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, Satha
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Boerhavia diffusaBoerhaviaRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, Satha

Based on classification

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyDescription:488528}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant Herbs perennial. Stems trailing, to 200 cm; stems glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Roots thick, fleshy. Petiole 0.4-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, 1-5 × 1-4 cm, both surfaces sparsely pubescent, abaxially gray-yellow, wrinkled when dry, base rounded or cuneate, margin undulate, with stout, muticellular hairs, apex obtuse or acute. Inflorescences terminal, capitate-cymose panicles; peduncle slender, sparsely pubescent. Pedicel short to almost absent. Bracts small, lanceolate, pubescent. Perianth limb bright purple or purple-red, 1.5-2 mm. Stamens 1-3(-5), slightly exserted or included. Anthocarp clavate, 3-3.5 mm, 5-ribbed, with viscid glands and sparse pubescence, apex rounded."Herbs perennial. Stems trailing, to 200 cm; stems glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Roots thick, fleshy. Petiole 0.4-2 cm; leaf blade ovate, 1-5 × 1-4 cm, both surfaces sparsely pubescent, abaxially gray-yellow, wrinkled when dry, base rounded or cuneate, margin undulate, with stout, muticellular hairs, apex obtuse or acute. Inflorescences terminal, capitate-cymose panicles; peduncle slender, sparsely pubescent. Pedicel short to almost absent. Bracts small, lanceolate, pubescent. Perianth limb bright purple or purple-red, 1.5-2 mm. Stamens 1-3(-5), slightly exserted or included. Anthocarp clavate, 3-3.5 mm, 5-ribbed, with viscid glands and sparse pubescence, apex rounded." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. EoL through eFloras
Seed dispersal mechanism Entomophily (By insects)
Bloom type Perennial
Life cycle of the plant Fl. and fr. spring-autumn. EoL through eFloras

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Herb
Plant height Up to 3 feet
Flower color Blue, Lavender/Purple
Flower shape
Floral symmetry Radial
Phyllotaxy of leaves
Leaf shape Ovate EoL through eFloras
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile? Petiolated EoL through eFloras
Is the leaf simple or compound? Compound EoL through eFloras

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status
Indian States in which the species has been documented
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited
Details about the habitat B. diffusa is widely dispersed, occurring throughout India, the Pacific, and southern United States. This wide range is explained by its small fruit, which are very sticky and grow a few inches off the ground, ideally placed to latch on to small migratory birds as they walk by. Wikipedia
Is this species native to India? Yes
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernFernNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Alpinia aquaticaHerb
Alpinia calcarataSnap Ginger, Cardamom ginger, Indian gingerकुलंजन KulanjanHerbCentral Deccan Plateau
Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitकटहलWoody (Tree/Shrub)
… further results

If no maps are displayed below, it means the required data is absent. Click on "Edit with form" button on top of the page to add this information.

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Boerhavia diffusaRed hogweed, Tar Vine, Red Spiderling, WineflowerPunarnava, SathaNyctaginaceaeCommon ailments
Organ-specific disorders
Charaka Samhita and Sushrita Samhita, describes preprations made form punarnava namely:

>punarnavastaka kvath, >punarnava kshar >punarnava taila

> roots of this plant is used for the treatment of piles by the inhabitants of the Garhwal Himalaya (Uttaranchal). >A paste made from roots of this plant is for the treatment of bloody dysentery by the Bhils tribals of the Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh. >The juice made form roots is used in against asthma, scanty urine, and internal inflammation disorders. >Use of this plant has also been reported to cure ailments such as leukorrhea, rheumatism, and stomach ache by the Sahariya tribe in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh. >Tribes from Ambikapur district (Madhya Pradesh) use it against elephantiasis.

In the Indo-Nepal Himalayan terai region, this plant is used by tribals for flushing out the renal system, and to treat seminal weakness and blood pressure.
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Common ailments, Organ-specific disorders
Specific ailments for which the species is used this herb is reported to be effective in:

>Stomach ache, >Anemia, >Cough, and cold, >Diaphoretic, >Laxative, >Potent antidote for snake and rat bites >Nephrotic syndrome >Hepatitis, >Gall bladder abnormalities >Urinary disorders >The flowers and seeds are used as contraceptive

L P Awasthi and H N Verma : agri-history.org
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Folk Medicine
Details of Medicinal use Charaka Samhita and Sushrita Samhita, describes preprations made form punarnava namely:

>punarnavastaka kvath, >punarnava kshar >punarnava taila

> roots of this plant is used for the treatment of piles by the inhabitants of the Garhwal Himalaya (Uttaranchal). >A paste made from roots of this plant is for the treatment of bloody dysentery by the Bhils tribals of the Jhabua district in Madhya Pradesh. >The juice made form roots is used in against asthma, scanty urine, and internal inflammation disorders. >Use of this plant has also been reported to cure ailments such as leukorrhea, rheumatism, and stomach ache by the Sahariya tribe in the Lalitpur district of Uttar Pradesh. >Tribes from Ambikapur district (Madhya Pradesh) use it against elephantiasis. In the Indo-Nepal Himalayan terai region, this plant is used by tribals for flushing out the renal system, and to treat seminal weakness and blood pressure.

L P Awasthi and H N Verma : agri-history.org
Parts of the plant used for treatment Root, Leaves L P Awasthi and H N Verma : agri-history.org
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known. >>This plant contains a large number of compounds like flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, triterpenoids, lipids, lignins.

>>Other molecules isolated and studied from this plant are > Punarnavine (Agarwal and Dutt, 1936; Basu et al., 1947; Surange and Pendse, 1972), >Boeravinone A.F (Kadota et al., 1989; Lami et al., 1990; 1992), >Hypoxanthine 9-L-arabinofuranoside (Ahmad and Hossain, 1968), >Ursolic acid (Mishra and Tiwari, 1971), >Punarnavoside (Jain and Khanna, 1989), >Liirodendrin (Aftab et al., 1996)

L P Awasthi and H N Verma : agri-history.org
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant ‘Punarnavoside’ found in roots of B. diffusa is a new antifibrinolytic compound. L P Awasthi and H N Verma : agri-history.org
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action The active principle active compound found in this herb is an alkaloid, known as

punarnavine.

L P Awasthi and H N Verma : agri-history.org
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species >A drug named as punarnava, has been prescribed in Indian Pharmacopoeia as a diuretic

>An aqueous extract of thinner roots of has been shown to protect various enzymes such as serum glutanicoxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutanic-pyruvic transaminase, and bilirubin in serum against hepatic injury in rats. > Extract form this plants has been studied vastly for their ability to Prevent and control viral diseases of crops in fields.

L P Awasthi and H N Verma : agri-history.org

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Root, Leaves
Details of use in food preparations >Roots is eaten as vegetable, in curries and soups.

>It is used as bird feed or poultry feed. >This plant is used as feed to sheep, goats, and cows, and in West Bengal and is believed to enhance lactation period and also the amount of milk in cattle.

Does this species have any religious significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Animal consumption, Medicinal use
Plant parts of commercial value Entire plant, Root, Leaves
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use
States where this plant is cultivated commercially Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal shwetank
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant
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Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

The page may take some time to load since LigerCat is searching the entire PubMed database and sending us the results in real time.

  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Boerhavia diffusa }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (UK) Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (UK)
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Boerhavia diffusa in Andhra Pradesh

References

boerhavia diffusa properties (Journal) : L P Awasthi1 and H N Verma ({{{year}}}),Boerhaavia diffusa – A Wild Herb with Potent Biological and Antimicrobial Properties, Asian Agri-History:{{{volume}}}({{{issue}}}):{{{page}}}. doi={{{doi}}}


EoL (Web): Encyclopedia of Life entry, Accessdate=2010-10-23


eFloras (Web): eFloras of China, Accessdate=2010-10-23


Wikipedia (Web): Wikipedia entry, Accessdate=2010-10-23


Flowers of India (Web): Flowers of India, Accessdate=2010-10-23


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