Artocarpus heterophyllus

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Jackfruit bunches growing on the tree
Species name: Artocarpus heterophyllus



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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Manasiapte, Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/06/24
This page was last modified on: 24 November 2010 03:57:42
Name of the species Artocarpus heterophyllus
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 596411
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Jackfruit
Common Hindi Names कटहल
Common Indian names कटहल Katahal, कठल Kathal(Hindi); থৈবোং Theibong(Manipuri); फणस Phanas(Marathi); பலா Palaa(Tamil); ചക്ക Chakka(Malayalam); పనస Panas(Telugu); Halasina hannu(Kannada); কাঁঠাল Kathal(Bengali); Panas(Oriya); पनसम् Panasam(Sanskrit); Lamphong (Kuki) FoI
Origins/Meanings of the common names Archeological findings in India have revealed that jackfruit was cultivated in India 3000 to 6000 years ago. Findings also indicate that Indian Emperor Ashoka the Great (274–237 BC) encouraged arbori-horticulture of various fruits including jackfruit. Varahamihira, the Indian astronomer, mathematician, and astrologer, wrote a chapter on the treatment of trees in his Brhat Samhita. His treatise includes a specific reference on grafting to be performed on trees such as jackfruit. Wikipedia

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:596411}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Magnoliopsida
Order Rosales
Family Moraceae
Genus Artocarpus
Source of data '

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Acacia niloticaMagnoliopsidaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaMagnoliopsidaAshokaअशोक Ashok
Adansonia digitataMagnoliopsidaBaobabGorakh imli गोरख इमली
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliopsidaMagnoliopsida is the scientific name for dicots. This class contains about ~1,99,350 species of Angiosperms. Eudicots are a subset of Dicots. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty.Dicots are diverse in habit, with half of all the species being more or less woody-stemmed - a reflection of the usual presence of a vascular cambium in the class. Annuals, biennials, vines, epiphytes, aquatics, parasites, and saprotrophs are also well represented in dicots. Vascular bundles of the stem are usually borne in a ring that encloses the pith. Vessel elements present except in some putatively primitive woody or aquatic families. Most dicots have a primary root system derived from the radicle, although some have an adventitious root system commonly seen in the class of monocots. Cotyledons are usually 2, seldom 1, 3, or 4. Leaves are mostly net-veined.
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Artocarpus heterophyllusRosalesJackfruitकटहल
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Artocarpus heterophyllusMoraceaeJackfruitकटहल
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Artocarpus heterophyllusArtocarpusJackfruitकटहल

Based on classification

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyDescription:596411}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant The tree is evergreen with a dense crown. While most trees are between 10-15m in height, some can reach upto 20m. EoL
Seed dispersal mechanism Zoophily (By vertebrates)
Bloom type Perennial Tropicalbiology, FoI
Life cycle of the plant

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Woody (Tree/Shrub)
Plant height More than 10 feet Gauravm
Flower color
Flower shape
Floral symmetry
Phyllotaxy of leaves Spiral
Leaf shape Obovate
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile?
Is the leaf simple or compound?

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status Not Evaluated EoL
Indian States in which the species has been documented Karnataka,Kerala,Maharashtra
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited
Details about the habitat This is now a cultivated species. It is cultivated widely in SE Asia, as also in Brazil and parts of China. However, it is thought to be native to India and indigenous to Western Ghats. It is a lowland species which requires plenty rainfall. EoL
Is this species native to India? Yes Wikipedia, EoL
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats? Yes EoL
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Abelmoschus moschatusOkra, Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okraमुश्कदाना Mushkdana, कस्तूरीदाना Kasturi-dana, जंगली भिंडी Jangli bhindi
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernFernNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Allium sativumCultivated Garlicलेह्सन Lehsan
Alpinia aquaticaHerb
… further results


Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Artocarpus heterophyllusJackfruitकटहलMoraceaeInfectious diseases
Pains and Inflammation
Systemic disorders
Organ-specific disorders
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Infectious diseases, Pains and Inflammation, Systemic disorders, Organ-specific disorders
Specific ailments for which the species is used Worms, Small pox, Sores, Toothaches, Stomach disorders, Sterility Sasya Sampada
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Folk Medicine Sasya Sampada
Details of Medicinal use
Parts of the plant used for treatment Leaves, Fruit Sasya Sampada
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known.
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known?
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations?
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations
Details of use in food preparations
Does this species have any religious significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species Gauravm
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes Sasya Sampada
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Animal consumption, Medicinal use, Ornamental use, Industrial use, Wood, Other use Sasya Sampada
Plant parts of commercial value Root, Stem, Bark, Leaves, Fruit Sasya Sampada
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use Yellow dye is made from wood. Wood also used for making furniture and musical instruments. The sap is used for making gum which can be applied to holes in earthern pots to seal them. A compound extracted from root bark is used as a food preservative. Sasya Sampada
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation Seeds
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant


Pubmed Word cloud

This word cloud is obtained using the tool LigerCat by searching the Pubmed database. LigerCat builds the cloud from the most relevant Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms. Each term's relative size indicates how many times it appears in the PubMed search results. Click on a term to access the full LigerCat cloud, with live PubMed search capabilities. LigerCat has been developed for the Biology of Aging Project.

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Artocarpus heterophyllus }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species On NCBI, on 2-Aug-2010, only a handful mRNA sequence were available. No thorough EST dataset. Protein sequences and some structures of Jacalin - a lectin binding protein are present. Jacalin, due to its high glycoprotein affinity, is being researched for use to separate human IgA from other glycoproteins. NCBI, Tachibana
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

References

{{Reference journal |refkeyword=Tachibana |author=Tachibana et al |title=Elucidation of binding specificity of Jacalin toward O-glycosylated peptides: quantitative analysis by frontal affinity chromatography |url=http://glycob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/short/16/1/46 |journal=Glycobiology |year=2006 |volume=16 |issue=1 |page=46 |doi=10.1093/glycob/cwj038

Tropicalbiology (Web): Tropical Biology, Accessdate=2010-June-28


FoI (Web): Flowers of India, Accessdate=2010-08-02


Sasya Sampada (Web): Sasya Sampada entry on Jackfruit, Accessdate=2010-08-2010