Hylobates hoolock

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White-browed Gibbon
Species name: Hylobates hoolock
The hoolock gibbons (Hoolock), also known as hoolocks, are two primate species from the family of the gibbons (Hylobatidae).Hoolocks are the second largest of the gibbons, after the Siamang. The range of the hoolocks is the most northwestern of all the gibbons, extending from Assam in North-East India, to Myanmar. Small populations (in each case few hundred animals) live also in eastern Bangladesh and in southwest China.


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2011/02/09
This page was last modified on: 10 February 2011 04:36:04
Name of the species Hylobates hoolock Link to page on Wikipedia
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 326454 Link to page on EoL
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names White-browed Gibbon, Hoolock gibbon
Common Hindi Names
Common Indian names
Origins/Meanings of the common names

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:326454}} 

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Taxonomy filled in form

Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Animalia
Phylum Chordata
Class Mammalia
Order Primates
Family Hylobatidae
Genus Hylobates
Source of data Encyclopedia of Life

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivision/PhylumCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Moschus chrysogasterChordataAlpine Musk Deer
Crocidura andamanensisChordataAndaman shrew
Crocidura hispidaChordataAndaman spiny shrew
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
ChordataThe phylum Chordata consists of three subphyla: Urochordata, represented by tunicates; Cephalochordata, represented by lancelets; and Craniata, which includes Vertebrata. Chordates are monophyletic, meaning that Chordata contains all and only the descendants of a single common ancestor which is itself a chordate, and that craniates' nearest relatives are cephalochordates. The Chordates arose from a more general superphylum Deuterostomia, which consists of Chordata, Hemichordata,Echinodermata and Xenoturbellida. The Deuterostomes split from Protostomes ~550 mya in the Cambrian era. It is supposed that Chordates arose in the Mid-Cambrian period, however there is controversy regarding that. The controversy arises mainly due to the fact that fossils of early chordates are very rare.Chordates form a phylum of creatures that are based on a bilateral body plan, and is defined by having at some stage in their lives all of the following: 1) A notochord, 2) A dorsal neural tube 3) Pharyngeal slits 4) A muscular tail that extends backwards behind the anus and 5) An endostyle
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Moschus chrysogasterMammaliaAlpine Musk Deer
Crocidura andamanensisMammaliaAndaman shrew
Crocidura hispidaMammaliaAndaman spiny shrew
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MammaliaDepending on classification scheme, there are approximately 5,500 species (5,490, according to the IUCN Red List) of mammals, distributed in about 1,200 genera, 153 families, 29 orders The early synapsid mammalian ancestors, a group which included pelycosaurs such as Dimetrodon, diverged from the amniote line that would lead to reptiles at the end of the Carboniferous period. Although they were preceded by many diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids (sometimes misleadingly referred to as mammal-like reptiles), the first true mammals appeared 220 million years ago in the Triassic period.Mammals are a class of air-breathing vertebrate animals characterized by the (1) possession of hair, (2) three middle ear bones -malleus, incus and stapes, (3) a neocortex, and (4) mammary glands functional in mothers with young. Mammalian fossils, however, are identified by the presence of the incus and malleus bones in the middle ear. Most mammals also possess sweat glands and specialized teeth, and the largest group of mammals, the placentals, have a placenta which feeds the offspring during gestation. The mammalian brain regulates endothermic and circulatory systems, including a four-chambered heart. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 millimeter (1- to 1.5-inch) Bumblebee Bat to the 33-meter (108-foot) Blue Whale. (Source:Wikipedia)
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Macaca assamensisPrimatesAssamese macaque
Hylobates hoolockPrimatesWhite-browed Gibbon, Hoolock gibbon
OrderTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
PrimatesThe Primates are an ancient and diverse eutherian group, currently with around 233 living species placed in 13 families. Most dwell in tropical forests. The smallest living primate is the pygmy marmoset, which weighs around 70 g; the largest is the gorilla, weighing up to around 175 kg. According to fossil evidence, the primitive ancestors of primates may have existed in the late Cretaceous period around 65 million years ago, and the oldest known primate is the Late Paleocene Plesiadapis, c. 55–58 million years ago. Molecular clock studies suggest that the primate branch may be even older, originating in the mid-Cretaceous period around 85 mya.Primates have diversified in arboreal habitats (trees and bushes) and retain many characteristics that are adaptations to this environment. Some of the most distinguishable and important adaptations include presence of opposable thumbs and big toes; a trend towards a reduced snout and flattened face, attributed to a reliance on vision at the expense of olfaction (smell); a complex visual system with stereoscopic vision, high visual acuity and color vision; a highly developed brain and a trend towards holding the torso upright leading to bipedalism.
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Hylobates hoolockHylobatidaeWhite-browed Gibbon, Hoolock gibbon
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Hylobates hoolockHylobatesWhite-browed Gibbon, Hoolock gibbon

Based on classification

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Information from Encyclopedia of Life

{{#EoLOnlyEcology:326454|Physical description~Description}} If nothing is displayed above in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined OR the EoL API service is down. If former, please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
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General morphological features of the animal

Parameter Value(s) References
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IUCN Conservation Status
(See section External Links to find link to the page on IUCN website)
Indian States in which the species has been documented
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited
Details about the habitat
Is this species native to India?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

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Information from Encyclopedia of Life

{{#EoLOnlyEcology:326454|Reproduction~Lifespan, longevity, and ageing~Food Habits~Functional adaptation~Behavior}}

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Parameter Value(s) References
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Life cycle
Life expectancy
Food habits and feeding strategies
Functional adaptations
Behavior
Pests and Diseases

Information from Encyclopedia of Life 500px-Status iucn3.1.png

{{#EoLOnlyEcology:326454|Conservation Status~Threats~Conservation}}

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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Status
(See section External Links to find link to the page on IUCN website)
Conservation sanctuaries in India
Details of threats to conservation of this species
Means of management of conservation, national and international laws

Parameter Value(s) References
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Does this species have any cultural significance?
Religions which mention/give significance to this species
Cultural and religious occasions when this species is used
Details of historical, cultural and mythological use

Pubmed Word cloud

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{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Hylobates hoolock }}

  • If there is an error message above, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 500.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue


References

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