Edit Plant species form 2: Santalum album

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Santalum album

  • Only include the information which has proper references. It is very important that you do so, or else the quality of this database will get affected.
  • Please do not copy text from websites. It would be considered copyright infringement. Copying from websites like Wikipedia, which have Creative Commons license is allowed but strongly discouraged.
  • As Reference keyword, enter some keyword which will identify the reference. Then at the end, note down the complete reference in the "References" tab under the proper keyword. Example: Keyword for an article written by Clark A.J. in some journal in 2007 would be Clark, 2007 or Clark et al, 2007 depending on number of co-authors. Note this keyword next to the information and finally, report the entire reference in the References tab.
  • If there is no reference but you *KNOW* what you are entering is correct, write your username as the reference keyword. No need to cite it in the References section again.
Some of these links may be helpful for finding the information in the form:
Wikipedia Binomial nomenclature, Morphology, Uses, Images Encyclopedia of Life Synonyms, IUCN Status, Morphology etc. Flowers of India Indian names, Morphology, Life cycle, Uses Drugs.com Medicinal values of different plants
Plants Database of India Distribution, Names Sasya Sampada Names,Morphology,Distribution,Medicine,Uses NCBI taxonomy Some of the scientific knowledge GRIN's Dr. Duke's Ethnobotanical database Referenced medicinal activities of different plants

  • Only provide images from Wikimedia Commons. If the name of the image file on Commons is File:XXX.jpg, ONLY write XXX.jpg in the image box below. Also make sure that you are entering the precise name of the file. For example, if file name is Brahma Image.JPG, typing Brahma image.jpg will, unfortunately, not work.
  • As far as possible, use a square-shaped image instead of a tall one for the header image so that it can be properly displayed.
Please provide 3-4 lines of brief introduction to this species
Please provide an image for the species, if available. This image will be at the top of the article.
Caption for the image
[edit]

Your username: Do not write your real name; only your username. If there are already any names here, add a comma (,) at the end and then write your name. Do not delete previous usernames.
Date of creation of this page: If you are editing an article, please leave this date untouched.

The following three fields are mandatory

Species name Please enter the two word Linnean name of the species.
Example: Mangifera indica for Mango.
Modified species name Please enter the species name replacing space by underscore
Example: Mangifera_indica
ID of the species on Encyclopedia of Life Search for the species on EoL. If the URL of the species is http://www.eol.org/pages/582270, enter 582270 in the box alongside. This is an important field since a lot of automatically generated content in the final page relies on it. If this species is present in Encyclopedia of Life, please make sure you have the EoL ID noted here.
Common Name: Common English Name ONLY. Eg: Coconut is the common English name of Cocos nucifera. Nariyal is the common Indian name which should be entered in the next question below.
Common Names in Hindi: Common Hindi Name ONLY. Eg: For the species Mangifera indica, which in English is Mango, one would enter the name आम Aam here. If there are more than one names, separate them by comma.
Eg: आम Aam,कैरी Kairi

For writing in Indian scripts, use Google Transliteration and copy-paste the Indian word here.

Common Indian Names: Please enter both name and language. Also enter the Hindi name. Separate same-language names by comma (as above), but different languages by semicolon For example, the value here for Mango would be:
आम Aam, कैरी Kairi (Hindi); आंबा Amba (Marathi); आम Aam, કૈરીનો Kairino (Gujarati) and so on.
For some species, the names can be found on searching the Flowers of India website. For writing in Indian scripts, use Google Transliteration and copy-paste the Indian word here.

Enter Reference keywords only

Origins/Meanings of the names:

Describe, preferably in complete sentences, note the meanings of the names above. Origins of the species and evolution of its name may also be noted down here.
For example, Shikakai means "food for the hair. It is called so because extract of the Shikakai fruit has been traditionally used as herbal shampoo.

In a new tab/window, check the entry of your species on Encyclopedia of Life first. If not present here, check Wikipedia for the following information
Regnum (Kingdom): Kingdoms end in -ae eg: Plantae
Division: Divisions end in -phyta eg: Magnoliophyta
Class: Classes ends in -ida eg: Magnoliopsida
Order: Orders end in -ales eg: Malvales
Family: Families end in -aceae eg: Brassicaceae
Genus: Genera can end in anything. eg: Mangifera,Arabidopsis,Raphanus
Source of above classification: Example: Encylopedia of Life. Make sure that you fill in the complete reference including access date in the References section at the bottom

Describe the general diagnostic morphological features of the plant:

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

This field can include a summary of the entire plant morphology including that of leaves, flowers, roots asked specifically below. Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.
Mango trees typically branch 0.6–2 m (2–6.5 ft) above the ground and develop an evergreen, dome-shaped canopy. Variability in canopy shape and openness occurs among varieties and with competition from other trees. Mangos grown in heavily forested areas branch much higher than solitary trees and have an umbrella-like form.

Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Sampada.

Field Value Reference keyword only (Whats this?)
Type of plant:
Plant height
Flower color: Google Images is a nice place to begin.
Floral symmetry: Google Images is a nice place to begin. Actinomorphic=Radial; Zygomorphic=Bilateral
Seed dispersal mechanism:
Bloom type:
Flowers of India may have some information.
Phyllotaxy of leaves Phyllotaxy is the arrangement of leaves around the stem. It can be one of the features used for differentiating between similar species. This is also interesting for a developmental biologist, as are the following parameters. This information can either be obtained by looking at the pictures or from the morphological description of the plant above.
Leaf shape The different types of leaf shapes are noted here. Pick out one that best suits the leaf shape of this species, which can be found by searching on Google Images.

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)
Does the leaf have a leaf stalk (petiole)? Description and pictures can be found here

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)
Is the leaf simple or compound? Definitions and pictures of simple and compound leaves can be found here

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

Life cycle:

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.

IUCN Conservation status:
States in which this species has been reported:
A good place to look is The Plant Database of India
Check the appropriate boxes
Reference keyword only (Whats this?)
'Towns/Talukas/Districts where this species has been reported:
A good place to look is The Plant Database of India. This information will help pull out all species closest to the town you are staying in.
VERY IMPORTANT: Separate the individual names by comma (,)
Reference keyword only (Whats this?)
Select the biotic zones where this species is present. This can be selected based on the state-wise distribution above, if available
(Enter reference keyword) (Whats this?)

Details of the habitat:

(Enter reference keyword)

Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.

Parameter Value References
Is this species native to India?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to the sub-Himalayan region?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to the Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to the Eastern Ghats?

Several of these questions can be answered by searching Drugs.com, Google Scholar, Himalaya Herb Finder, GRIN's Dr. Duke Ethnobotany and Sasya Sampada

Does this species have any known medicinal use? Whether any of the medicinal systems give any significance to this species in any form. This information may be found using the above links
Medicinal systems which use this plant (Enter reference keywords) (Whats this?)
General types of ailments for which this species is used: (Enter reference keyword) This selection can be decided using your judgement, based on knowledge of specific diseases for which the plant is used.

Specific ailments for which this species is used

(Enter reference keyword)

Note down one word names of the ailments, as far as possible. Do not use "and" and separate names by comma.
Diarrhea, Dysentery, Urethritis, Rheumatism, Diphtheria, Scabies, Hemorrhages, Hemorrhoids, Fever, Chest pains, Diabetes, Hypertension, Toothaches

What parts of the plant have medicinal value?
(Enter reference keyword)
What are the active chemical compounds which confer medicinal value to this plant? If such compounds are known, note down the most important ones. Do not enter general chemicals such as Magnesium and Calcium. Expected values would be Curcumin, Turmeron, Zingiberin for Turmeric, Azadirachtin for Neem and so on. Check out the following links for this information.

(Enter reference keyword)
Describe the chemistry and the active compounds in more detail This information may be obtained on Drugs.com,Himalaya Herb Finder, GRIN's Dr. Duke Ethnobotany or on Google Scholar.

(Enter reference keyword)
Is the molecular basis of action of the plant known? Choose Yes or No

(Enter reference keyword)
Describe the molecular basis of action of the active compounds: Use the above links for this information.
(Enter reference keyword)
Are the toxic effects of plant known? As Paracelsus, The Father of Toxicology said, "All things are poison and nothing is without poison, only the dose permits something not to be poisonous." The question here is...are the effects known for this plant? This information may be found using the above links.

(Enter reference keyword)
Describe the known toxic effects of the plant, if any: Consumption of some plants may be unsuitable for pregnant women or people with certain conditions or on some medications. Please enter this information here. This information may be obtained on Drugs.com,Himalaya Herb Finder or on Scholar.
(Enter reference keyword)
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant? Click on the above links for this info.

(Enter reference keyword)
Details of the clinical studies of the plant, if any: Click on the above links for this information.
(Enter reference keyword)
Other details of medicinal use: Important things to mention include which part of plant is used for treating which ailment, how is the plant used and where is this practiced.
The twigs and leaves, used to clean the teeth, are said to be beneficial to the gums, while the bark is said to be useful for toothaches. The astringent stomachic bark is also used for internal hemorrhages, bronchitis, and catarrh.

(Enter reference keyword)

Some of these questions can be answered using information on Sasya Sampada


Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations?
Parts of the plant used in the food preparations

Details of use in food preparations:

Describe in detail.

Does this species have any religious significance? Whether any of the following religions give any significance to this species in any form.
Religions which mention/give significance to this species (if any):
(Enter reference keyword)

Religious occasions where this species is used:

(Enter reference keyword)

Note down one word names of the occasions and festivals, as far as possible. Do not use "and" and separate names by comma.
Diwali, Onam, Id-ul-Fitr, Pongal, Dussehra, Puja, Ganesh festival, Holi

Details of religious use:

(Enter reference keyword)

Describe in as many words as you want

Some of these questions can be answered using information on Sasya Sampada


Are there commercial uses of this plant? Choose Yes or No

(Enter reference keyword) Help!
General uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated
(Enter reference keyword) Help!
Which parts of the plant are used for commercial purposes?
(Enter reference keyword) Help!
Name some commercial products where this plant is used Example: Dabur Chyawanprash, Ayurved Pharmacy's Mahabhringaraj Tel. Start typing a name. If the product is already present, you'll be shown suggestions.

Describe the commercial uses of the plant in detail:

(Enter reference keyword) Help!

Describe in detail. Please do not use wiki markups in his box. Generally, information that cannot be described in the above fields should go in this box. Complete sentences allowed.
Please select the states where this species is commercially cultivated (Enter reference keyword) Help!

For the seasons listed below, the following is a key

Winter November to February
Summer (also called Pre-Monsoon season) March to May
Monsoon June to August
Post-Monsoon September to November
When is the best time for sowing/planting this species?
(Enter reference keyword) Help!
When is the best time for harvesting this species?
(Enter reference keyword) Help!
Method of propagation of the plant?
(Enter reference keyword) Help!
What is the water requirement of this plant?
(Enter reference keyword)
Are pests and diseases of this plant known? Name them separated by commas

Details of the cultivation aspects:

(Enter reference keyword)Help!

Various issues that can be described in detail here include type of soil required, water use, fertilizer requirement, susceptibility to diseases, susceptibility to stress conditions etc.

This section will be automatically populated in the main page by searching NCBI Taxonomy and Pubmed. However, you can add any other information you want in the box below

Additional info about modern scientific knowledge that you might want to add:

(Enter reference keyword)

Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.

Example
Are herbarium specimen present for this species? Yes or No.
Institutes having herbarium samples: Note department name, institution name and location. Separate different institutions by semi-colon (;). Do not use "and" in the box. eg: Botany Department, Ruia College, Mumbai ; Department of Biochemistry, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore
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