Edit Mammalian species form: Ochotona roylei

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Ochotona roylei

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Some of these links may be helpful for finding the information in the form:
Wikipedia Binomial nomenclature, Morphology, Uses, Images Encyclopedia of Life Synonyms, IUCN Status, Morphology etc.
Jeev Sampada Names,Morphology,Distribution NCBI taxonomy Some of the scientific knowledge

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Please provide 3-4 lines of brief introduction to this species
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The following three fields are mandatory

Species name Please enter the two word Linnean name of the species.
Example: Mangifera indica for Mango.
Modified species name Please enter the species name replacing space by underscore
Example: Mangifera_indica
ID of the species on Encyclopedia of Life Search for the species on EoL. If the URL of the species is http://www.eol.org/pages/582270, enter 582270 in the box alongside. This is an important field since a lot of automatically generated content in the final page relies on it. If this species is present in Encyclopedia of Life, please make sure you have the EoL ID noted here.
Common Name: Common English Name ONLY. Eg: Coconut is the common English name of Cocos nucifera. Nariyal is the common Indian name which should be entered in the next question below.
Common Names in Hindi: Common Hindi Name ONLY. Eg: For the species Mangifera indica, which in English is Mango, one would enter the name आम Aam here. If there are more than one names, separate them by comma.
Eg: आम Aam,कैरी Kairi

For writing in Indian scripts, use Google Transliteration and copy-paste the Indian word here.

Common Indian Names: Please enter both name and language. Also enter the Hindi name. Separate same-language names by comma (as above), but different languages by semicolon For example, the value here for Mango would be:
आम Aam, कैरी Kairi (Hindi); आंबा Amba (Marathi); आम Aam, કૈરીનો Kairino (Gujarati) and so on.
For some species, the names can be found on searching the Flowers of India website. For writing in Indian scripts, use Google Transliteration and copy-paste the Indian word here.

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Origins/Meanings of the names:

Describe, preferably in complete sentences, note the meanings of the names above. Origins of the species and evolution of its name may also be noted down here.
For example, Shikakai means "food for the hair. It is called so because extract of the Shikakai fruit has been traditionally used as herbal shampoo.

In a new tab/window, check the entry of your species on Encyclopedia of Life first. If not present here, check Wikipedia for the following information
Regnum (Kingdom):
Phylum:
Class:
Order: eg: Primates
Family: eg: Hominidae
Genus: eg: Homo
Source of above classification: Example: Encylopedia of Life. Make sure that you fill in the complete reference including access date in the References section at the bottom

Describe the general diagnostic morphological features of the animal

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

This field should include the entire animal morphology. Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.
Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Jeev Sampada.

States in which this species has been reported:
A good place to look is Jeev Sampada
Check the appropriate boxes
Reference keyword only (Whats this?)
'Towns/Talukas/Districts where this species has been reported:
A good place to look is Jeev Sampada. This information will help pull out all species closest to the town you are staying in.
VERY IMPORTANT: Separate the individual names by comma (,)
Reference keyword only (Whats this?)
Select the biotic zones where this species is present. This can be selected based on the state-wise distribution above, if available
(Enter reference keyword) (Whats this?)

Details of the habitat:

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Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.

Parameter Value References
Is this species native to India?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to the sub-Himalayan region?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to the Western Ghats?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to the Eastern Ghats?

Life cycle:

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.

Life expectancy:

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Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.
Example (from Encyclopedia of Life): Human lifespans vary tremendously with nutritional status and exposure to diseases and trauma. Humans can live more than 100 years; the longest lived human that has been documented was 122 years old. Most humans live 50 to 80 years old, providing they survive their most vulnerable childhood years. Average life expectancy in many parts of the developing world is from less than 40 years old to 65 years old. In the developed world average life expectancy can be over 80 years old. (U.S. Central Intelligence Agency, 2008)

Food Habits and feeding strategies:

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Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.
Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Jeev Sampada.
Example (from Encyclopedia of Life):
Humans generally eat a highly variable omnivorous diet. The components of diets vary tremendously with regional availability of foods. Some human cultures restrict their diet to a vegetarian one, relying on plant sources of proteins. Foods are often extensively prepared and stored for future use. The use of fungal colonies, such as yeasts, for creating cultured foods, such as beer, bread, and cheeses, is widespread. (Boaz and Almquist, 2002)

What are the different functional adaptations of this species?

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Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.
Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Jeev Sampada.
Example (from Encyclopedia of Life):

"Nature offers numerous examples of materials that serve multiple functions. Biological materials routinely contain sensing, healing, actuation, and other functions built into the primary structures of an organism. The human skin, for instance, consists of many layers of cells, each of which contains oil and perspiration glands, sensory receptors, hair follicles, blood vessels, and other components with functions other than providing the basic structure and protection for the internal organs. These structures have evolved in nature over eons to the level of seamless integration and perfection with which they serve their functions." (Bar-Cohen 2006:310)

Details of Behavior:

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Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.
Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Jeev Sampada.
Example (from Encyclopedia of Life):

Humans are one of the most behaviorally, socially, and culturally complex animal species. Ancient humans were nomadic hunter gatherers but the development of agriculture approximately 10,000 years ago revolutionized the way that humans live. Agriculture ultimately led to increases in regional human populations and concentration in urban centers, and dramatically altered the cultures, economies, and relationships among human populations. In general, humans are highly social animals that are active mainly during the day. Some human populations remain nomadic or migratory, while most live mainly in one general area. (Boaz and Almquist, 2002; Findley et al., 1975)

Are pests and diseases of this animal known?

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

Name the pests and diseases separated by commas.


IUCN Conservation status:

Conservation Sanctuaries in India housing this species

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

Name the National Parks, State Parks, Bioreserves housing this species in India
Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Jeev Sampada.
Example:
Ranathambore National Park, Tadoba National Park, Gir National Park

Threats to conservation:

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Describe in as many words as you want. No wiki markups here please.
Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Jeev Sampada.
Example (from Encyclopedia of Life for Elephant):

Numbers of Asian elephants were decimated by habitat loss and hunting throughout their historical range. Vast tracts of land have been logged or simply cleared to accommodate the growing human population in the region (2). Elephant populations have become increasingly isolated in the fragmented habitat that remains, often coming into conflict with local farmers (6). Crops are damaged and lives lost; up to 300 people a year are killed by elephants in India (3), leading to retaliation on local elephants (7). Poaching for ivory is also a threat and because only males have tusks, populations can become extremely skewed towards females, thus affecting breeding rates (2).

Management of conservation

(Enter reference keyword e.g. Clark, 2007)

What all organizations, national and international laws protect this animal.
Some of this information may be present on Encyclopedia of Life and Jeev Sampada.
Example (from Encyclopedia of Life for Elephant):
The Asian elephant is protected from international trade by its listing on Appendix I of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES), although illegal poaching remains a problem (3). Many elephants occur within protected reserves but these are often too small to accommodate them, leading to human-elephant conflict (3). The creation of wildlife corridors to extend reserve lands, together with the cessation of poaching are just some of the conservation steps needed to secure the future of the Asian elephant (7). The World Wildlife Fund (WWF) launched the Asian Rhino and Elephant Action Strategy (AREAS) in 1998 to address these issues, and this multifaceted conservation programme is also working with local people to reduce conflict with these magnificent animals.


Some of these questions can be answered using information on Jeev Sampada

Does this species have any cultural significance? Importance in religion, mythology, social life
Religions which mention/give significance to this species (if any):
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Religious occasions where this species is used:

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Note down one word names of the occasions and festivals, as far as possible. Do not use "and" and separate names by comma.
Diwali, Onam, Id-ul-Fitr, Pongal, Dussehra, Puja, Ganesh festival, Holi

Details of historical, cultural and mythological use:

(Enter reference keyword)

Describe in as many words as you want
Example (for Elephant):
Elephants have been considered sacred in Indian culture. The head of Lord Ganesha, the God of wisdom, is that of an elephant. As the mythological story goes, Parvati, the wife of Lord Shiva was alone at home and wanted to have a bath. To guard the entrance, Parvati created a human child - Ganesha - out of the earth and asked him to guard the entrance while she took a bath. While Parvati was bathing, Lord Shiva came to the scene and wanted to enter the house. However Ganesha blocked him from entering saying that it was his mother's orders not to allow anyone inside. Enraged, Lord Shiva cut off Ganesha's head and entered the house. Parvati, upon learning this, was overcome with grief. Upon learning that Ganesha was his own son, Lord Shiva felt sad too. Parvati then asked Lord Shiva to go down the Himalayas (their abode), cut off the head of the first animal he sees and splice it onto the headless body of Ganesha. The first animal Lord Shiva found was an elephant and that is how Lord Ganesha came to have the elephant's head and thus, infinite wisdom.

Elephants have been used traditionally as vehicles for royalty - kings, emperors and monarchs. They have been used in battles since pre-historic times. Elephants are used in cultural festivals such as temple processions in Kerala.

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