Zingiber officinale

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This is supposedly a 25.4 pounds of root of Ginger. Image obtained by US Agricultural Research Service.
Species name: Zingiber officinale

Zingiber officinale or Ginger is a plant native to India. India is the largest producer of ginger, accounting for 30% of the world production. It is closely related to Turmeric and Cardamom. Ginger is widely used in India and around the world in cooking and for medicinal purposes.


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Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Names of users who have contributed to this species page Gauravm
Date on which this page was first created 2010/08/14
This page was last modified on: 24 November 2010 05:12:07
Name of the species Zingiber officinale
ID on Encyclopedia of Life 987032
Synonyms Please check Binomial Classification section for synonyms.
Common English Names Garden ginger
Common Hindi Names अदरक Adrak
Common Indian names अदरक Adrak (Hindi);শীঙ Shing (Manipuri);आले, सुंठ Alha, Aale (Marathi);இஞ்சி Ingee, Inji (Tamil);ഇഞ്ചി Inchi, Enchi (Malayalam);అల్లపు చెట్టు, అల్లము, శొంటి Allam, Allamu, Allamu chettu, Shonti (Telugu);Alla, Shunthi (Kannada);আদা Ada (Bengali);ଅଦା Ada (Oriya);ادرک, آدی Adrak, Adi (Urdu);আদা Ada (Assamese);આદું Adu, સૂંઠ Sunth (Gujarati);Adraka (Sanskrit);अदुवा Aduwa (Nepali) Flowers of India
Origins/Meanings of the common names The English name ginger comes from the French gingembre, from medieval Latin ginginer, from Greek ζιγγίβερις zingiberis, from Pali सिन्गिभेर siṅgivera, ultimately of Dravidian origin from Tamil இஞ்ஜி inji ver (meaning root of inji). The Latin word was borrowed at an earlier date into Old English as gingifere, but the French form ultimately supplanted it. Wikipedia

Taxonomy from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyHierarchy:987032}} 

Taxonomy filled in form

Angiosperm phylogeny. This image is copyrighted. Rights owned by Theodore C.H.Cole (Heidelberg) and Hartmut H. Hilger (Berlin) 2010. Please obtain copyright permissions before reuse.
Click here for the PDF of the phylogeny
Taxon Value
Regnum (Kingdom) Plantae
Division Magnoliophyta
Class Liliopsida
Order Zingiberales
Family Zingiberaceae
Genus Zingiber
Source of data '

Other closely related species

SpeciesDivisionCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Acacia niloticaArabic Gum, Black Piquant, Egyptian thorn, Prickly acaciaबबूल Babool,कीकर Kikar
Saraca indicaAshokaअशोक Ashok
… further results
DivisionTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
MagnoliophytaAlso called Angiospermae. The ancestors of flowering plants diverged from gymnosperms around 245–202 million years ago, and the first flowering plants known to exist are from 140 million years ago. They diversified enormously during the Lower Cretaceous and became widespread around 100 million years ago, but replaced conifers as the dominant trees only around 60-100 million years ago.These are seed plants like Gymnosperms, but can be differentiated by the presence of flowers, seeds containing endosperm and seeds that produce a fruit. Angiosperms are the most diverse and highly evolutionarily successful group of land plants.
SpeciesClassCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Aloe veraLiliopsidaAloe vera, Medicinal aloe, Burn plantGheekumari घीकुमारी
Zingiber rubensLiliopsidaBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumLiliopsidaCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
… further results
ClassTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
LiliopsidaLiliopsida is considered the scientific name for monocots, but monocots may be called differently based on different taxonomic classification systems. Based on chloroplast DNA sequences, the divergence date between monocots and dicots is estimated to be ~200 million years, with a 40 million years uncertainty. There are ~50000-60000 species of monocots, with the largest family being Orchidaceae (orchids) consisting of ~20000 species. The true grasses (Poaceae) are the most economically important family, with 70% of the crops being cultivated belonging to this family.The following features distinguish monocots from dicots - 1) Three flower parts in each flower (vs 4-5 in dicots) 2) One pore in pollen (vs 3) 3) One cotyledon (vs 2) 4) Vascular bundles in stem scattered (vs concentric circles) 5) Adventitious roots (vs radicle-origin) 6) Parallel venation (vs reticulate) These broad distinguishing features indeed have some exceptions
SpeciesOrderCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Zingiber rubensZingiberalesBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumZingiberalesCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
Curcuma longaZingiberalesCommon Turmericहल्दी Haldi
… further results
SpeciesFamilyCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Zingiber rubensZingiberaceaeBengal Ginger
Elettaria cardamomumZingiberaceaeCardamom, Green cardamomइलाएची Elaichi
Curcuma longaZingiberaceaeCommon Turmericहल्दी Haldi
… further results
FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
ZingiberaceaeZingiberaceae split off from the genus Costaceae ~79 or ~100 million years ago, based on two estimates (Kress06,Janssen04). The family consists of over 93 genera and over 2000 different species, with the center of diversity in South-East Asia.Small to large herbaceous plants, distichous leaves with basal sheaths that overlap to form a pseudostem. Plants are either self-supporting or epiphytic. Flowers are hermaphroditic, usually strongly zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry), in determinate cymose inflorescences, with conspicuous, spirally arranged bracts. The perianth is composed of two whorls, a fused tubular calyx, and a tubular corolla with one lobe larger than the other two. Flowers typically have two of their stamenoids (sterile stamens) fused to form a petaloid lip, and have only one fertile stamen. The ovary is inferior and topped by two nectaries, the stigma is funnel-shaped.
SpeciesGenusCommon nameCommon Hindi name
Zingiber rubensZingiberBengal Ginger
Zingiber officinaleZingiberGarden gingerअदरक Adrak
Zingiber chrysanthumZingiberGolden flowered ginger
… further results

Based on classification

FamilyTaxon detailsTaxon morphology details
ZingiberaceaeZingiberaceae split off from the genus Costaceae ~79 or ~100 million years ago, based on two estimates (Kress06,Janssen04). The family consists of over 93 genera and over 2000 different species, with the center of diversity in South-East Asia.Small to large herbaceous plants, distichous leaves with basal sheaths that overlap to form a pseudostem. Plants are either self-supporting or epiphytic. Flowers are hermaphroditic, usually strongly zygomorphic (bilateral symmetry), in determinate cymose inflorescences, with conspicuous, spirally arranged bracts. The perianth is composed of two whorls, a fused tubular calyx, and a tubular corolla with one lobe larger than the other two. Flowers typically have two of their stamenoids (sterile stamens) fused to form a petaloid lip, and have only one fertile stamen. The ovary is inferior and topped by two nectaries, the stigma is funnel-shaped.

More details can be found in the Binomial Classification section.

Morphology from Encyclopedia of Life

If nothing is displayed in this section, it means the EoL ID has not been defined. Please click on Edit with form button on top and follow the instructions for filling in the EoL ID

{{#EoLOnlyDescription:987032}} 

General morphology

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General morphological features of the plant Rhizomes branched, yellowish inside, thickened, fleshy, strongly aromatic. Pseudostems 50--100 cm. Leaves sessile; ligule slightly 2-lobed, 2--4 mm, membranous; leaf blade lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 15--30 × 2--2.5 cm, glabrescent. Inflorescences arising from rhizomes, ovoid, 4--5 × ca. 1.5 cm; peduncle to 25 cm; bracts pale green, sometimes yellowish at margin, ovate, ca. 2.5 cm, apex mucronate; bracteoles equaling bracts. Calyx ca. 1 cm. Corolla yellowish green; tube 2--2.5 cm; lobes lanceolate, ca. 1.8 cm. Central lobe of labellum with purple stripe and cream blotches, oblong-obovate, shorter than corolla lobes; lateral lobes ovate, ca. 6 mm, free nearly to base. Stamen dark purple; anther ca. 9 mm; connective appendage curved, ca. 7 mm. Fl. Oct. 2 n = 22*."Rhizomes branched, yellowish inside, thickened, fleshy, strongly aromatic. Pseudostems 50--100 cm. Leaves sessile; ligule slightly 2-lobed, 2--4 mm, membranous; leaf blade lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 15--30 × 2--2.5 cm, glabrescent. Inflorescences arising from rhizomes, ovoid, 4--5 × ca. 1.5 cm; peduncle to 25 cm; bracts pale green, sometimes yellowish at margin, ovate, ca. 2.5 cm, apex mucronate; bracteoles equaling bracts. Calyx ca. 1 cm. Corolla yellowish green; tube 2--2.5 cm; lobes lanceolate, ca. 1.8 cm. Central lobe of labellum with purple stripe and cream blotches, oblong-obovate, shorter than corolla lobes; lateral lobes ovate, ca. 6 mm, free nearly to base. Stamen dark purple; anther ca. 9 mm; connective appendage curved, ca. 7 mm. Fl. Oct. 2 n = 22*." cannot be used as a page name in this wiki. EoL
Seed dispersal mechanism
Bloom type Perennial Wikipedia
Life cycle of the plant

How to identify this species

For a detailed description, refer to the General Morphology details above

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Type of plant Herb
Plant height Up to 3 feet
Flower color Yellow Wikipedia
Flower shape
Floral symmetry Bilateral Wikipedia
Phyllotaxy of leaves Alternate
Leaf shape Lanceolate EoL
Is the leaf petiolated or sessile? Sessile EoL
Is the leaf simple or compound? Simple EoL

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
IUCN Conservation Status Least Concern Kew Botanical Gardens
Indian States in which the species has been documented Assam,Bihar,Delhi,Goa,Karnataka,Kerala,Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra,Rajasthan,Sikkim,Tamil Nadu,Tripura,Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal Plant Database of India
Locations at which the species has been documented
Biotic zones inhabited Northeastern Himalayas, Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, Central Deccan Plateau, Indo-Gangetic Plain
Details about the habitat Ginger probably originated as part of the ground flora of tropical lowland forests, where many of its wild relatives can still be found. In cultivation it requires hot, humid, shady conditions and grows best in a fertile loam as it needs large quantities of nutrients. Kew Botanical Gardens
Is this species native to India? Yes Flowers of India, Kew
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Sub-Himalayan regions?
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Western Ghats? Yes Gauravm,Plant Database of India
Is the species indigenous/endemic to Eastern Ghats?

More plants native to India

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi namePlant typeNative plantBiotic zone
Abelmoschus moschatusOkra, Abelmosk, Ambrette seeds, Annual hibiscus, Bamia Moschata, Galu Gasturi, Muskdana, Musk mallow, Musk okra, Musk seeds, Ornamental okra, Rose mallow seeds, Tropical jewel hibiscus, Yorka okraमुश्कदाना Mushkdana, कस्तूरीदाना Kasturi-dana, जंगली भिंडी Jangli bhindi
Acacia concinnaSoap podशिकाकाई ShikakaiWoody (Tree/Shrub)Northeastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
Western Ghats
Central Deccan Plateau
East Coast
West Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Acrostichum aureumGolden leatherfern, Mangrove fernFernNortheastern Himalayas
Eastern Ghats
East Coast
Indo-Gangetic Plain
Outlying Islands
Aegle marmelosBel, Beli fruit, Bengal quince, Stone apple, Wood appleबेल Bel
Allium sativumCultivated Garlicलेह्सन Lehsan
… further results

If no maps are displayed below, it means the required data is absent. Click on "Edit with form" button on top of the page to add this information.
{{#generateMap:Assam,Bihar,Delhi,Goa,Karnataka,Kerala,Madhya Pradesh,Maharashtra,Rajasthan,Sikkim,Tamil Nadu,Tripura,Uttar Pradesh,West Bengal|Zingiber_officinale_brahma.svg|align=center}}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Does this species have any medicinal use? Yes

Other plants of the same family having medicinal use:

Species nameCommon nameCommon Hindi nameFamilyAilment typeMedicinal use description
Alpinia allughasTaraTara (Bengali)ZingiberaceaeThe plant is used in Chinese folk medicine
Alpinia calcarataSnap Ginger, Cardamom ginger, Indian gingerकुलंजन KulanjanZingiberaceaePains and InflammationAlpinia calcarata is used atleast in Sri Lanka as a folk medicine for pain relief. Some studies from University of Colombo have tried to study the effect of ethanolic extracts and hot water extracts on reproductive competence and pain relief in rats.
Curcuma longaCommon Turmericहल्दी HaldiZingiberaceaeInfectious diseases
Accidents
Pains and Inflammation
Common ailments
Systemic disorders
Organ-specific disorders
Cancer
Although several studies have shown efficacy of using turmeric for many diseases, reliable scientific evidence is lacking for many conditions. The important active component is a polyphenol called Curcumin. It has been shown to have antioxidant, antibiotic, antitumor, antiamyloid, antiischemic and antiinflammatory properties. See molecular details more more specific mode of action.
… further results
Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
General types of ailments this species is used for treating Pains and Inflammation, Organ-specific disorders, Mental disorders, Cancer
Specific ailments for which the species is used Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Stomach disorders, Heart disease, Common cold, Cough, congestive headache, Headaches, Heat cramps, Arthritis, Cancer Wikipedia
Medicinal systems which use this plant Ayurveda, Unani, Folk Medicine, Modern Medicine Wikipedia, Sasya Sampada
Details of Medicinal use In Unani system of medicine the rhizomes are used in stomachic, aphrodisiac, tonic, expectorant, carminative. It also used in removal of pain due to cold and warms from the brain. Ginger is very useful in piles, rheumatism, headach, lumbago, pains. Sasya Sampada
Parts of the plant used for treatment Root, Rhizome
Names of some medicinal active compounds in this plant, if known. Zingeberene, Zingeberol, Gingerol, Paradol, Shogaol Himalaya
Details of the active chemical compounds found in this plant Over 400 different compounds have been identified in Ginger. Several volatile oils and sesquiterpenes give ginger its characteristic aroma. Gingerol, Paradol, Shogaol have been proven in many drug tests to have apoptotic activity in mice. Effect of ginger extract on platelet aggregation, osteoarthritic pain relief, pregnancy-related nausea have been documented, but remain inconclusive.
Is the molecular basis of the medicinal action known?
Details of molecular basis of action
Are the toxic effects of consumption of this plant known? Yes Kew
Details of the toxic effects of the plant species High dosage may cause side-effects in pregnant women. It is also known to cause allergies in some people (Kew). Ginger is contraindicated in people suffering from gallstones as it promotes the production of bile (Wikipedia). Kew Botanical Gardens, Wiki Ginger
Have there been validation/clinical studies related to this plant?
Details of the clinical studies related to the plant species

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant/plant-derived product used in food preparations? Yes User-reported
Part(s) of the plant used in the food preparations Root, Rhizomes
Details of use in food preparations Young ginger rhizomes are juicy and fleshy with a very mild taste. They are often pickled in vinegar or sherry as a snack or just cooked as an ingredient in many dishes. They can also be stewed in boiling water to make ginger tea, to which honey is often added; sliced orange or lemon fruit may also be added. Ginger can also be made into candy.

Mature ginger roots are fibrous and nearly dry. The juice from old ginger roots is extremely potent and is often used as a spice in Indian recipes. Ginger acts as a useful food preservative. Powdered dry ginger root is typically used as a flavoring for recipes such as gingerbread, cookies, crackers and cake, ginger ale, and ginger beer. Candied ginger is the root cooked in sugar until soft, and is a type of confectionery.

In India, fresh ginger is one of the main spices used for making pulse and lentil curries and other vegetable preparations. Fresh as well as dried ginger is used to spice tea and coffee especially in winter. Ginger powder is also used in certain food preparations particularly for pregnant or nursing women, the most popular one being Katlu which is a mixture of gum resin, ghee, nuts, and sugar. Ginger is also consumed in candied and pickled form.

Ginger rolls are also used as a digestive after-dinner eats.

Source: Wikipedia

Does this species have any religious significance? Yes User-reported
Religions which mention/give significance to this species Hinduism
Religious occasions
Details of religious use

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Is this plant cultivated commercially in India? Yes
Uses for which the plant is commercially cultivated Human consumption, Medicinal use, Cosmetic use, Religious use
Plant parts of commercial value Root, Rhizomes
Products where this plant is used User-reported
Description of use
States where this plant is cultivated commercially
Best period for planting this plant
Best period for harvesting this plant
Method of propagation
Water requirement of this plant
Pests and Diseases affecting this plant during cultivation
Other considerations while cultivating this plant Ginger probably originated as part of the ground flora of tropical lowland forests, where many of its wild relatives can still be found. In cultivation it requires hot, humid, shady conditions and grows best in a fertile loam as it needs large quantities of nutrients.

Zingiber officinale has been successfully propagated at Kew using internodal cuttings. The cuttings are placed in a shallow pot in a mixture of coir and perlite. The pot is placed in a misting unit (or, if not available, in a closed glass case), which is heated at the base to 20 ˚C. It takes time for any activity to become visible, but eventually new roots and shoots are produced. It has been noted that this method produces vigorous plants. The traditional technique for propagation of ginger is by division.

Kew Botanical Gardens


Pubmed Word cloud

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  • If there is an error message below, it means that there is no retrievable information available on NCBI
  • If the number of nucleotide sequences is less than 100, very little genomic work has been done on this species. A respectable number of nucleotide sequences is above 10000.
  • Most of the nucleotide sequences may come from three sources:
  1. Studies on single genes, where people try to sequence genes such as some specific dehydrogenases important,say, for tannin production
  2. Sequences of Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer, whose sequence is used for generating molecular phylogenetic trees to establish species relationships
  3. Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs) which can tell about which genes are present and expressed in the species at a particular time in the given tissue

{{#queryDB:taxonomy |Zingiber officinale }}

Parameter Value(s) References
See complete references in the References section at the end
Details of modern scientific knowledge available for this species Several tens of thousands of EST sequences available on GenBank. (Aug 2010). Most of the molecular data comes from metabolite and chemical data obtained from juices obtained from rhizome. NCBI
Are herbarium specimen available for this species?
Institutes having herbarium samples

References

Kew Botanical Gardens (Web): Kew entry on Ginger, Accessdate=2010-08-14


Flowers of India (Web): Flowers of India entry on Ginger, Accessdate=2010-08-14


EoL (Web): Encyclopedia of Life entry on Ginger, Accessdate=2010-08-14


Himalaya (Web): Himalaya Monograph on Ginger, Accessdate=2010-08-16


Sasya Sampada (Web): Link to Sasya Sampada entry, Accessdate=2010-08-20